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Category: Publications: Construction Engineering and Research Laboratory (CERL)
  • Analysis of the Army Transition from LEED 2009 to LEED v4, with Updated LEED 4.1 Credits

    Abstract: The objective of this effort was to identify and recommend an approach for Army green building certification that ensures Army projects meet federal and Army sustainability requirements during the transition from Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) 2009 to LEED v4. The first Army LEED v4 project was registered for certification with the Green Building Certification Institute in 2014. Since then, over 860 Army projects were registered for LEED v4 certification. As of the third quarter of FY20, when this report was written, 2 projects achieved LEED Silver certification. Other Army projects teams documented difficulty achieving the required LEED v4 Silver certification due to difficult site conditions, budget constraints, facility types, or project requirements. Commercial-sector project teams also had difficulty certifying with LEED v4, forcing the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) to reconsider the credits and metrics project teams found challenging. The USGBC revised the troublesome credits and now offers LEED v4.1 pilot credits that can be used for any project registered with LEED v4. To assist Army project teams, this research investigates difficult-to-achieve LEED v4 cred-its and their possible replacement with LEED v4.1 pilot credits. The report concludes with guidance on implementing the updated version of the LEED rating system from v4 to v4.1.
  • Initial Data Collection from a Fiber-Optic-Based Dam Seepage Monitoring and Detection System

    Abstract: Visual inspection is the most used method to detect seepage at dams. Early detection can be difficult with this method, and use of appropriate real time monitoring could significantly increase the chances of recognizing possible failure. Seepages can be identified by analyzing changes in water and soil temperature. Optical fiber placed at the embankment’s downstream toe has been proven to be an efficient means of detecting real time changes at short intervals over several kilometers. This study aims to demonstrate how temperatures measured using fiber optic distributed sensing can be used to monitor seepage at Moose Creek Dam, North Pole, Alaska. The fiber optic cable portion of the monitoring system is installed along a section of the embankment where sand boils have occurred. Though no flood event occurred during this monitoring period, routine pumping tests of nearby relief wells resulted in an increase of soil and water temperature (up to 13°C) along a 100 m section where sand boils were detected during the 2014 flood events. Measurements during a flood event are expected to provide a quantitative assessment of seepage and its rate.
  • Fort Riley Firing Ranges and Military Training Lands: A History and Analysis

    Abstract: The US Congress codified the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the nation’s most effective cultural resources legislation to date, mostly through establishing the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The NHPA requires federal agencies to address their cultural resources, which are defined as any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object. Section 110 of the NHPA requires federal agencies to inventory and evaluate their cultural resources, and Section 106 requires them to determine the effect of federal undertakings on those potentially eligible for the NRHP. Fort Riley is in north-central Kansas within Riley and Geary Counties. It consists of six functional areas, including the Main Post, Camp Funston, Marshall Army Airfield (MAAF), Camp Whitside, Camp Forsyth, and Custer Hill. This report provides a historic context for ranges, features, and buildings associated with the post’s training lands in support of Section 110 of the NHPA.
  • Pilot-Scale Optimization: Research on Algae Flotation Techniques (RAFT)

    Abstract: The impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on US national waterways continue to cause significant economic and environmental damage. Researchers at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) successfully demonstrated the Research on Algae Flotation Techniques (RAFT) project at pilot scale. This study was designed to show that the surface concentrations of algal biomass can be effectively increased with near linear scalability utilizing the natural methods by which some algae entrap air within excreted mucilage for flotation. The surface concentration of cyanobacteria measured as phycocyanin pigment increased by six-fold after RAFT flocculation treatment. Further optimization of chemical delivery systems, mixing, and dissolved air exposure will be required before full scale readiness.
  • Rapid Algae Flotation Techniques

    Abstract: Some harmful algae produce mucilage or extracellular polymeric substances useful for flotation. This study evaluated natural polysaccharides to determine effects on algal flotation with DAF. Food-grade gums (xanthan gum, guar gum, gum arabic, gellan gum, and diutan gum) were tested with cyanobacteria cultures singly and in combination with commercial flocculants (including Tramfloc 222 and Tramfloc 300). Gum arabic alone had no effect when evaluated at concentrations between 10 mg/L and 5,000 mg/L. However, the combination of gum arabic and Tramfloc 300 yielded higher algal flocculation than Tramfloc 300 alone. The combination of xanthan gum (anionic) and guar gum (cationic) did not perform at the level of the combined xanthan gum and Tramfloc 222 in either flocculation or flotation of algae. Tramfloc 222 and xanthan gum; however, yielded effective flocculation seemingly resistant to changes in interfering factors such as turbulence, pH, and temperature. Furthermore, the combination of xanthan gum and Tramfloc 222 provided the most effective flotation and flocculation independent of pH effects. The results suggest that anionic polysaccharides can be used to increase the efficacy of cationic coagulants such as Tramfloc 222.
  • Burgess-Capps Cabin: Historic Context, Maintenance Issues, and Measured Drawings

    Abstract: The Burgess-Capps Cabin is located on the US Air Force Academy (USAFA), Colorado, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1975 under the name of “Pioneer Cabin.” The building is currently not occupied but used as a history interpretive site. It is one of the few log cabins that remain in this part of Colorado from the time of European settlement. All buildings, especially historic ones, require regular planned maintenance and repair. The most notable cause of historic build-ing element failure or decay is not the fact that the historic building is old, but rather, it is caused by incorrect or inappropriate repair or basic neglect of the historic building fabric. This document is a maintenance manual compiled with as-is conditions of construction materials of the cabin. The secretary of interior’s guidelines on rehabilitation and repair per material are discussed to provide the cultural resources manager at USAFA a guide to maintain this historic building. Additional chapters include information regarding the historic materials and a structural analysis. This report satisfies Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966 as amended and will help USAFA’s Cultural Resources Management Office to manage this historic building.
  • José María Gil Adobe: Historic Context, Maintenance Issues, Measured Drawings, and Adaptive Reuse

    Abstract: The José María Gil Adobe, located on Fort Hunter Liggett, California, was added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1974. The building has been vacant since the early 1970s. It is a fine example of a small adobe ranch house possessing character-defining features of its period of significance of the mid-19th century on its exterior, interior, and within the site itself. This document is a reconstruction, repair, maintenance, and adaptive reuse report compiled with photographed, written, and drawn as-is conditions of construction materials of the José María Gil Adobe building and site. The building was 3D scanned to obtain the necessary information for the measured drawings. The secretary of the interior’s guidelines on rehabilitation and repair per material are discussed to provide the cultural resources manager at Fort Hunter Liggett a guide to maintain this historic building. Rehabilitation is the best option for the successful reuse of the José María Gil Adobe as it will move the building from a vacant status to an occupied status. It is highly likely that this building can again serve an appropriate use as outlined in Section 11, reflecting its appearance in the early 20th century or WWII periods.
  • Historic Context for Railroads at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin

    Abstract: This report provides a historic context for the railroads that operated within the present-day boundaries of Fort McCoy. The objective of this historic context is to deliver a useful reference for future evaluations of railroad-related resources in the installation. Ultimately, the report is in-tended to save the installation time in determining potential areas of significance for future evaluations. This is accomplished through the creation of a broad historic context for railroading in the Midwest, establishing a survey of railroad history at Fort McCoy, and providing examples of areas of significance and National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) criteria commonly applied to the historic railroad resources of the Midwest. This report does not provide NRHP eligibility recommendations for any specific resources; however, possible research questions for further study are posited in the concluding chapter.
  • Pattern Language for a More Resilient Future

    Abstract: The Department of the Army (DA) manages millions of acres of land for military use. Military installations and other US DoD operations contain architectural structures and civil infrastructure that require continuous improvements to resiliency. This includes resiliency in the form of protection against both natural and man-made disasters. This document seeks to identify multiple risks to infrastructure and people and encourages open dialogue for creative solutions. Designers and engineers as well as other disciplines can work together to achieve higher resiliency in both new and renovated work. The following sections are created to provide a starting guide, utilizing various tools to discover the best resilient design strategies for your building. This special report will argue for actionable design strategies; drawing inspiration from historical building forms, while also looking toward emerging technologies that should be further explored.
  • Evaluation of a Visible Light Responsive Photocatalytic Coating to Resist Microbial Contamination and Increase Indoor Air Quality

    Abstract: To meet new Department of Defense (DoD) energy standards, buildings are being constructed, and existing buildings are being retrofitted with tighter envelops. These new standards can reduce operational costs significantly but also limit fresh outdoor air coming into the built environments. This can result in the accumulation of harmful substances within buildings, which can have adverse effects on its occupants. New photocatalytic coatings may be a solution to this ever-increasing problem as they have the ability to destroy both chemical and biological toxins when activated with light. This work evaluated a novel indoor-light-reactive photocatalytic coating for its ability to eliminate or reduce microbial contamination under in situ test conditions. However, air and surface sampling revealed no reduction in either viable fungi and bacteria or total air-borne mold spores. Additionally, no significant differentiation could be made in the composition of volatile organics between the treated and untreated areas. However, testing the photocatalytic activity of the coating with standardized test methods and increased illumination, revealed the coating did exhibit antimicrobial activity against mold, bacteria, and viruses. This suggested that there may be limited benefit to using the indoor-light-reactive photocatalytic coating to inhibit microbial contamination unless specific lighting conditions can be met.