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Category: Publications: Construction Engineering and Research Laboratory (CERL)
  • Resilience Modeling for Civil Military Operations with the Framework Incorporating Complex Uncertainty Systems

    Abstract: Framework Incorporating Complex Uncertain Systems (FICUS) provides geographic risk analysis capabilities that will dramatically improve military intelligence in locations with the Engineer Research and Development’s (ERDC) demographic and infrastructure models built and calibrated. When completed, FICUS would improve intelligence products by incorporating existing tools from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, ERDC, and FICUS prototype models, even in places without demographic or infrastructure capabilities. FICUS would support higher-fidelity intelligence analysis of population, environmental, and infrastructure interaction in areas with Human Infrastructure System Assessment (HISA) and urban security models built and calibrated. This technical report will demonstrate FICUS prototype tools that allow Civil Affairs Soldiers to provide situational awareness information via a browser interface.
  • Dining Facility Whole-Building Evaluation to Reduce Solid Waste: Opportunities and Best Practices for Optimization and Management of Food Waste

    On military installations, an average of 1.2 pounds in food waste is dis-posed per person per day, accounting for 68% of dining facility (DFAC) refuse and 46% of the total installation refuse stream, making food waste the heaviest portion of installation solid waste. At a single installation, this can contribute up to 1.5 million dollars lost yearly from food waste alone. Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 4715.23 (DoD 2016) establishes policy and prescribes procedures to implement waste management through waste prevention and recycling. The US Army Installation Management Commands (IMCOM) installations have limited resources and limited personnel to study which source reduction methods are optimal to reduce food waste given their unique mission requirements. This study identifies opportunities for optimization and management of solid waste across IMCOM installations. Recycling is not enough to significantly reduce the economic or environmental costs to the DoD. Army installations pay over $100 million annually in disposal fees. Source reduction is emphasized in regulations but not prioritized in process modifications or technology solutions. Additionally, food waste contributes to excessive global greenhouse gas emissions, which affect global warming and climate change. A multitiered approach is necessary, placing more emphasis on source reduction advances and initiatives.
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Full Coverage Planning with Negative Obstacles

    Abstract: We explored approaches that offer full coverage path planning while simultaneously avoiding negative obstacles. These approaches are specific to unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), which need to constantly interact with a traversable ground surface. We tested multiple potential solutions in simulation, and the results are presented herein. Full coverage path planner (FCPP) approaches were evaluated based on their ability to discretize their paths, use waypoints effectively, and be easily integrated with our current robot platform. For negative obstacles, we explored approaches that will integrate with our current navigation stack. The preferred solution will allow for teleoperation, waypoint navigation, and full autonomy while avoiding positive and negative obstacles
  • Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Path Planning in 2.5D and 3D

    Abstract: Herein, we explored path planning in 2.5D and 3D for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) applications. For real-time 2.5D navigation, we investigated generating 2.5D occupancy grids using either elevation or traversability to determine path costs. Compared to elevation, traversability, which used a layered approach generated from surface normals, was more robust for the tested environments. A layered approached was also used for 3D path planning. While it was possible to use the 3D approach in real time, the time required to generate 3D meshes meant that the only way to effectively path plan was to use a preexisting point cloud environment. As a result, we explored generating 3D meshes from a variety of sources, including handheld sensors, UGVs, UAVs, and aerial lidar.
  • Technology Transfer: Converting Multizone HVAC Systems from Constant to Variable Volume

    Abstract: This project promotes awareness and facilitates implementation of a low-cost controls retrofit for multizone air handling systems as an interim solution for energy efficiency that accrues savings while delaying system replacement. Implementation tools support technology evaluation and rapid implementation. Products include the following: fact sheet, technical note, pitch briefing, scoping guide, savings estimator, procurement package templates, commissioning guide, and on-line training. Multiple outreach activities occurred including presentations, journal articles, and contacting potentially interested parties.
  • Bridge Resource Inventory Database for Gap Emplacement Selection (BRIDGES)

    Abstract: Wet gap crossings are one of the most complex maneuvers undertaken by military engineers, who, along with engineer planners, require better tools to increase the capacity for efficient use of limited bridging resources across the battlespace. Planning for bridging maneuvers often involves a complicated and inefficient system of ad hoc spreadsheets combined with an overreliance on the personal experience and training of subject matter experts (SMEs). Bridge Resource Inventory Database for Gap Emplacement Selection (BRIDGES) uses interactive mapping and database technology in order to streamline the bridging planning process and provide answers to question about myriad scenarios to maximize efficiency and provide better means of data persistence across time and data sharing across operational or planning units.
  • Docker Containers and Images for Robot Operating System (ROS)–Based Applications

    Abstract: Docker is a tool designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications by using containers. Containers allow a developer to package and ship out an application with all of the parts it needs, such as libraries and other dependencies. Herein, we investigate using a Docker image to deploy and run our Robot Operating System (ROS)–based payload on a robot platform. Ultimately, this would allow us to quickly and efficiently deploy our payload on multiple platforms.
  • US Air Force Academy Gallagher and Massey Ranch Houses: Historic American Buildings Surveys CO-237, CO-237-A, and CO-238

    Abstract: The US Congress codified the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the nation’s most effective cultural resources legislation to date, mostly through establishing the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The NHPA requires federal agencies to address their cultural resources, which are defined as any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object. Section 110 of the NHPA requires federal agencies to inventory and evaluate their cultural resources, and Section 106 requires them to determine the effect of federal undertakings on those potentially eligible for the NRHP. The US Air Force Academy is located at the base of the Front Range within El Paso County. The US Air Force Academy has been used for training US Air Force officers since 1954. The Gallagher Ranch House and its associated garage, erected circa 1953, and the Massey Ranch House, erected 1941, are eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. This report documents the buildings to the standards of the Historic American Buildings Survey and includes a historic context, architectural descriptions, photographs, and measured drawings. This report satisfies Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as amended and will be used by the US Air Force Academy for mitigation, allowing for the demolition of the three buildings.
  • A History and Analysis of the WPA Exhibit of Black Art at the Fort Huachuca Mountain View Officers’ Club, 1943–1946

    Abstract: The 1943 art exhibition at the Mountain View Officers’ Club (MVOC), Fort Huachuca, Arizona should be considered one of the most significant events in the intersection of American art, military history, and segregation. Organizers of the event, entitled Exhibition of the Work of 37 Negro Artists, anticipated it would boost soldiers’ morale because Fort Huachuca was a predominately Black duty station during WWII. This report provides a brief history of Black art in the early 20th century, biographies of the artists showcased, and provides information (where known) about repositories that have originals or reproductions of the art today. The following is recommended: the General Services Administration (GSA) investigate the ownership of the pieces described in this report and if they are found to have been created under one of the New Deal art programs to add them to their inventory, further investigation be performed on the provenance and ownership of Lew Davis’s The Negro in America’s Wars mural, for the rehabilitation of the MVOC that the consulting parties agree upon the scope of the reproduction of the art, and request archival full reproductions of the pieces of art found in the collection of the Howard University Gallery of Art.
  • Architectural Survey of Eight Ohio Army National Guard Armories, 1971–1977

    Abstract: This document is an architectural survey of eight armories, seven field maintenance shops (FMS; three detached and four attached to the armory), and ten metal storage buildings utilized by the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG), located across the state of Ohio. The armories and OMS were constructed or received extensive renovation and additions between 1971 and 1977, while the majority of the metal storage buildings were constructed in the 1980s. This survey satisfies Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) as amended and was used to recommend the eligibility of these buildings and structures for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). It is the recommendation of this report that two armories; Alliance Armory (1976) and Xenia Armory (1975) and one associated support building; Xenia motor storage building (1975) are significant under National Register of Historic Places criteria and retain enough integrity to be individually eligible for the NRHP. Volume II of this report is published separately and contains the ERDC-CERL architectural survey forms.