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Category: Publications: Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL)
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  • Practical Guidance for Numerical Modeling in FUNWAVE-TVD

    Purpose: This technical note describes the physical and numerical considerations for developing an idealized numerical wave-structure interaction modeling study using the fully nonlinear, phase-resolving Boussinesq-type wave model, FUNWAVE-TVD (Shi et al. 2012). The focus of the study is on the range of validity of input wave characteristics and the appropriate numerical domain properties when inserting partially submerged, impermeable (i.e., fully reflective) coastal structures in the domain. These structures include typical designs for breakwaters, groins, jetties, dikes, and levees. In addition to presenting general numerical modeling best practices for FUNWAVE-TVD, the influence of nonlinear wave-wave interactions on regular wave propagation in the numerical domain is discussed. The scope of coastal structures considered in this document is restricted to a single partially submerged, impermeable breakwater, but the setup and the results can be extended to other similar structures without a loss of generality. The intended audience for these materials is novice to intermediate users of the FUNWAVE-TVD wave model, specifically those seeking to implement coastal structures in a numerical domain or to investigate basic wave-structure interaction responses in a surrogate model prior to considering a full-fledged 3-D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. From this document, users will gain a fundamental understanding of practical modeling guidelines that will flatten the learning curve of the model and enhance the final product of a wave modeling study. Providing coastal planners and engineers with ease of model access and usability guidance will facilitate rapid screening of design alternatives for efficient and effective decision-making under environmental uncertainty.
  • Wave Attenuation of Coastal Mangroves at a Near-Prototype Scale

    Abstract: A physical model study investigating the dissipation of wave energy by a 1:2.1 scale North American red mangrove forest was performed in a large-scale flume. The objectives were to measure the amount of wave attenuation afforded by mangroves, identify key hydrodynamic parameters influencing wave attenuation, and provide methodologies for application. Seventy-two hydrodynamic conditions, comprising irregular and regular waves, were tested. The analysis related the dissipation to three formulations that can provide estimates of wave attenuation for flood risk management projects considering mangroves: damping coefficient β, drag coefficient CD, and Manning’s roughness coefficient n. The attenuation of the incident wave height through the 15.12 m long, 1:2.1 scale mangrove forest was exponential in form and varied from 13%–77%. Water depth and incident wave height strongly influenced the amount of wave attenuation. Accounting for differences in water depth using the sub-merged volume fraction resulted in a common fit of the damping coefficient as a function of relative wave height and wave steepness. The drag coefficient demonstrated a stronger relationship with the Keulegan–Carpenter number than the Reynolds number. The linear relationship be-tween relative depth and Manning’s n was stronger than that between Manning’s n and either relative wave height or wave steep
  • Evaluation of Climatic and Hydroclimatic Resources to Support the US Army Corps of Engineers Regulatory Program

    Abstract: Short-term climatic and hydrologic interactions, or hydroclimatology, are an important consideration when delineating the geographic extent of aquatic resources and assessing whether an aquatic resource is a jurisdictional water of the United States (WOTUS) and is therefore subject to the Clean Water Act (CWA). The now vacated 2020 Navigable Waters Protection Rule (NWPR) required the evaluation of precipitation and other hydroclimatic conditions to assess the jurisdictional status of an aquatic resource based on normal hydroclimatic conditions. Short-term hydroclimatic conditions, such as antecedent precipitation, evapotranspiration, wetland delineation, and streamflow duration assessments, provide information on an aquatic resource’s geo-graphic extent, hydrologic characteristics, and hydrologic connectivity with other aquatic resources. Here, researchers from the US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) evaluate tools and data available to practitioners for assessing short-term hydroclimatic conditions. The work highlights specific meteorological phenomena that are important to consider when assessing short-term hydroclimatic conditions that affect the geographic extent and hydrologic characteristics of an aquatic resource. The findings suggest that practitioners need access to data and tools that more holistically consider the impact of short-term antecedent hydroclimatology on the entire hydrologic cycle, rather than tools based solely on precipitation.
  • A Revisit and Update on the Verification and Validation of the Coastal Modeling System (CMS): Report 1–Hydrodynamics and Waves

    Abstract: This is the first part of a two-part report that revisits and updates the verification and validation (V&V) of the Coastal Modeling System (CMS). The V&V study in this part of the report focuses on hydrodynamic and wave modeling. With the updated CMS code (Version 5) and its latest graphical user interface, the Surface-water Modeling System (Version 13), the goal of this study is to revisit some early CMS V&V cases and assess some new cases on model performance in coastal applications. The V&V process includes the comparison and evaluation of the CMS output against analytical solutions, laboratory experiments in prototype cases, and field cases in and around coastal inlets and navigation projects. The V&V results prove that the basic physics incorporated are represented well, the computational algorithms implemented are accurate, and the coastal processes are reproduced well. This report provides the detailed descriptions of those test simulations, which include the model configuration, the selection of model parameters, the determination of model forcing, and the quantitative assessment of the model and data comparisons. It is to be hoped that, through the V&V process, the CMS users will better understand the model’s capability and limitation as a tool to solve real-world problems.
  • Sediment Mobility, Closure Depth, and the Littoral System – Oregon and Washington Coast

    Abstract: Forty years ago, the depth of closure concept was introduced to provide a systematic, process-based approach to evaluate seasonal changes in cross-shore profiles and sediment mobility in the nearshore. This study aims to extend that theory by directly considering wave-asymmetry in the nearshore environment. This technical note introduces a methodology to calculate wave induced dispersal of dredged material placed in nearshore sites and summarizes analyses validating the approach using data from the South Jetty Site at the Mouth of the Columbia River. This investigation highlights the notion of a cross-shore gradient in nearshore placement effectiveness of dredged material that can assist project managers plan and execute sustainable sediment management practices at coastal inlets.
  • Coastal Resilience: Benefits of Wrack and Dune Systems and Current Management Practices

    Purpose: The purpose of this US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) technical note (TN) is to review both the ecological and geomorphological impacts of wrack on dune systems and provide an overview of current beach dune and wrack management practices. As part of the US Army Corps Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program, this TN also introduces a case study investigating wrack management solutions for dune stabilization.
  • Method to Evaluate Vessel Wake Forces on Wetland Scarps

    Purpose: This Coastal and Hydraulics engineering technical note (CHETN) presents a methodology to compute normal forces on wetland perimeters with vertically scarped edges. The approach uses an empirical algorithm that predicts the normal force given the offshore vessel wake height, period, and water depth at a given point. Wave impact forces are measured using load cells, which have not been applied previously to marsh settings. Load cell and vessel wake measurements from two field sites are combined to generate an empirical transfer function relating forces to incoming vessel wake characteristics.
  • Coastal Hazards System–Louisiana (CHS-LA)

    Abstract: The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) expanded the Coastal Hazards System (CHS) to quantify storm surge and wave hazards for coastal Louisiana. The CHS Louisiana (CHS-LA) coastal study was sponsored by the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) and the New Orleans District (MVN), US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to support Louisiana’s critical coastal infrastructure and to ensure the effectiveness of coastal storm risk management projects. The CHS-LA applied the CHS Probabilistic Coastal Hazard Analysis (PCHA) framework to quantify tropical cyclone (TC) responses, leveraging new atmospheric and hydrodynamic numerical model simulations of synthetic TCs developed explicitly for the Louisiana region. This report focuses on documenting the PCHA conducted for the CHS-LA, including details related to the characterization of storm climate, storm sampling, storm recurrence rate estimation, marginal distributions, correlation and dependence structure of TC atmospheric-forcing parameters, development of augmented storm suites, and assignment of discrete storm weights to the synthetic TCs. As part of CHS-LA, coastal hazards were estimated within the study area for annual exceedance frequencies (AEFs) over the range of 10 yr-1 to 1×10-4 yr-1.
  • Sediment Supply from Bank Caving on the Lower Mississippi River, 1765 to Present

    Abstract: Bank caving rates and associated total sediment supply were calculated along the Lower Mississippi River from Cairo, IL, to Baton Rouge, LA, using historical maps between 1765 and 1992. Comparison of these maps reveals that the added sediment loads from bank erosion have greatly declined through time. In the pre-1960s period, erosion rates generally ranged from approximately 300 million cubic yards (MCY) to 400 MCY, with the 1880–1930s period having the highest erosion rates of approximately 600 MCY. By the 1990s, the sediment supply from bank erosion was essentially eliminated, with significant erosion being observed at only a few locations, totaling approximately 40 MCY/year. This equates to approximately a 90% reduction in the amount of total sediment being supplied to the channel system from bank erosion.
  • Current State of Practice of Nearshore Nourishment by the United States Army Corps of Engineers

    Abstract: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) special report prepared by the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, provides an overview of the current state of practice for nearshore nourishment with dredged sediment. This special report was completed with responses and input from professionals across the dredging and placement teams from each of the USACE Coastal and Great Lakes districts, providing comprehensive overviews of the decision trees these districts utilize in the placement of their dredged sediment. This report describes the general practice of nearshore nourishment, the impediments and concerns faced by nearshore nourishment projects, and the practical methods utilized by the Coastal and Great Lakes districts for their nearshore nourishment projects. Understanding the current state of practice, along with the general and specific impediments the districts face, enables further research in and development of best practices for use across the USACE and better communication of the practice to other stakeholders.