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  • Simulated Barge Impacts on Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Composite Sandwich Panels: Dynamic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to Develop Force Time Histories to Be Used on Experimental Testing

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic response of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sandwich panels subjected to typical barge impact masses and velocities to develop force time histories that can be used in controlled experimental testing. Dynamic analyses were performed on FRP composite sandwich panels using the finite element method software Abaqus/Explicit. The “traction-separation” law in the Abaqus software is used to define the cohesive surface interaction properties to evaluate the damage between FRP composite laminate layers as well as the core separation within the sandwich panels. Numerical models were developed to better under-stand the damage caused by barge impacts and the effects of impacts on the dynamic response of composite structures. Force, displacement, and velocity time histories were obtained with finite element modeling for several mass and velocity cases to develop experimental testing procedures for these types of structures.
  • Review of Regressive Channel Erosion and Grade Control Options on the Rio Coca, Ecuador

    Purpose: The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is assisting the Ecuadorian state-run Corporación Eléctrica del Ecuador (CELEC) in addressing a water resource issue involving regressive channel erosion on the Rio Coca. Reconnaissance of the site was completed the week of 21 February 2022; parts of the river system were viewed to determine if improvements could be made to the current grade control structure (GCS) mitigation plan for reducing channel erosion and stabilizing the river system downstream of the Coca Coda Sinclair (CCS) Dam. The Rio Coca is a tributary to the Amazon River system in South America. It originates on the east side of the Andes Mountains and generally flows from southwest to northeast through the project area and then turns and flows east into the Amazon basin (Figure 1).* The Rio Coca valley is a current example of how damaging regressive erosion can be to a fluvial system (Figure 2).
  • Sensitivity of Simulated Flaw-Height Estimates to Phased Array Scan Parameters

    Abstract: Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for detecting and sizing flaws in welds. Estimates of flaw size are sensitive to a variety of PAUT scan parameters. In this study, estimates of flaw height are simulated using computer software. The sensitivity of these estimates to selected PAUT scan parameters is analyzed to identify those that have the greatest influence on estimates of flaw height. Understanding how varying different parameters within a phased array instrument affects the accuracy of flaw-height estimates helps to validate PAUT scan procedures and improve flaw-height estimates. For this research, a series of permutations on selected flaws were performed to see how certain parameters affect the accuracy in sizing flaw height. In addition, an analysis on how beam spread leads to flaw sizing inaccuracies was also conducted as part of this work.
  • Evaluation of a Permeable Dam as an Erosion Control Structure on Coca River, Ecuador

    Abstract: The effort performed here describes the process to evaluate the scour-protection performance of the proposed permeable dam. The US Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, built a 1:50 Froude scaled movable bed section model of the permeable dam structure and tested in a specialized flume that simulates regressive erosion propagation. Profiles were collected at various times to track the progression of the scour. Tests evaluated variations of the proposed structure, which included tetrapods, riprap, bridge piers, and longitudinal piles. For the various proposed alternatives, a total of six tests were conducted. The collected profiles show the ability or inability of each alternative and its associated performance. From this analysis, untethered tetrapods could not effectively arrest the local scour around the structure. However, large rock along with invert control stopped the regressive erosion and held the upstream grade.
  • Old River Control Complex (ORCC) Low Sill: A Literature Synthesis

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), New Orleans District (MVN), tasked the US Army Engineer and Research Development Center (ERDC) with assessing the condition of a grouted scour hole located at the southeast wall of the Old River Low Sill Structure (ORLSS) at the Old River Control Complex (ORCC) using noninvasive techniques, such as geophysical surveys and physical models. This special report (SR) combines a scientific literature synthesis of previous research with further geologic interpretation as a first step in the overall task assigned by MVN. The results discussed in this SR will be used to inform the interpretation of geophysical surveys, construction of physical models, and input for the slope stability analyses.
  • Underwater Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)–Retrofitted Steel Hydraulic Structures (SHS) Fatigue Cracks

    Purpose: Recent advances in the use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) to retrofit steel structures subjected to fatigue cracks have shown to be a viable solution for increasing fatigue life in steel hydraulic structures (SHS). Although several studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of FRP for retrofitting metal alloys and the promising potential of such has been well-demonstrated, the application has never been implemented in underwater steel structures. This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note presents the implementation of FRP patches to repair fatigue cracks at Old Hickory Lock and Dam miter gate.
  • 2021 Guided Wave Inspection of California Department of Water Resources Tainter Gate Post-Tensioned Trunnion Anchor Rods: Oroville Dam

    Abstract: The Engineering and Test Branch within the Division of Operations and Maintenance of the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Sacramento District, tasked the Sensor Integration Branch (SIB) at the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to perform nondestructive testing (NDT) on the trunnion anchor rods at Oroville Dam through the use of ultrasonic guided waves. This is the fourth year of this NDT. The results of the testing are presented along with qualitative analysis in determining whether a rod is intact or compromised. Analysis is based upon the expected results from other rods at the site, knowledge of rod response at other sites, data gathered from the trunnion rod research test bed at ERDC, and comparison to the previous year’s effort.
  • Risk-Based Prioritization of Operational Condition Assessments: Methodology and Case Study Results

    Abstract: USACE operates, maintains, and manages more than $232 billion of the Nation’s water resource infrastructure. USACE uses the Operational Condition Assessment (OCA) to allocate limited resources to assess condition of this infrastructure in efforts to minimize risks associated with performance degradation. The analysis of risk associated with flood risk management (FRM) assets includes consideration of how each asset contributes to its associated FRM watershed system, understanding the consequences of the asset’s performance degradation, and a determination of the likelihood that the asset will perform as expected given the current OCA condition ratings of critical components. This research demonstrates a proof-of-concept application of a scalable methodology to model the probability of a dam performing as expected given the state of its gates and their components. The team combines this likelihood of degradation with consequences generated by the application of designed simulation experiments with hydrological models to develop a risk measure. The resulting risk scores serve as an input for a mixed-integer optimization program that outputs the optimal set of components to conduct OCAs on to minimize risk in the watershed. This report documents the results of the application of this methodology to two case studies.
  • Numerical Analysis of Dike Effects on the Mississippi River Using a Two-Dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics Model (AdH)

    Abstract: This report describes the hydraulic effects of dikes on water surface elevation (WSE) and velocities in the Mississippi River near Vicksburg, MS, from Interstate 20 to Highway 80 using a previously calibrated 2D Adaptive Hydraulics numerical model. Dike heights and their associated hydraulic roughness values were varied to quantify the overall effects of adjustments to dike fields. Steady flows characterized as low, medium, and high conditions were simulated. The WSE and velocity difference plots were generated to illustrate the hydraulic effects on the river under all scenarios discussed above. Overall, the dike adjustments had negligible impacts on WSEs and showed minimal effects on velocities on a system wide scale.
  • The Old River, Mississippi River, Atchafalaya River, and Red River (OMAR) Technical Assessment

    NOTE: The Old River, Mississippi River, Atchafalaya River, and Red River (OMAR) Technical Assessment is a 9-volume series of reports that was produced under the direction of the Mississippi River Geomorphology & Potamology Program. An abstract from the main report, Volume 1, is listed below, along with the individual volume titles and links to the relevant reports. ABSTRACT: This is the main report of Old River, Mississippi River, Atchafalaya River, and Red River (OMAR) Technical Assessment. The primary objective of the OMAR Technical Assessment was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation that aimed to understand the impacts of former and potential changes to the system in the vicinity of the Old River Control Complex (ORCC) over time, the water and sediment delivery regime at the ORCC, and the effects to the river system surrounding the ORCC. Scenarios evaluated in this technical assessment were designed to investigate potential system responses to a wide range of possible operational alternatives and identify knowledge gaps in current understanding of system behavior. This report summarizes and synthesizes the individual reports detailing the investigations into specific aspects of the ORCC and the surrounding region.