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  • A Review of Airfield Pavement Drainage Guidance

    Abstract: Inadequate drainage conditions may lead to airfield pavement deterioration. A thorough review of existing pavement drainage guidance and literature was necessary to identify key drainage considerations such as surface drainage infrastructure, pavement drainage layer thickness, use of geotextiles, and performance in freeze–thaw climates. Existing airport drainage guidance is provided by the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Tri-Service Pavements Working Group (TSPWG). Pavement drainage guidance is buried within regulations for pavement de-sign and can, at times, be split awkwardly to accommodate pavement guidance that is split between rigid and flexible designs. Most airfield pavement guidance has been adapted from guidance for highway design. Most guidance is also strength based, with little to no attention paid to material erodibility (a potential cause of pavement deterioration). This review also found very little reference to repairing, rather than completely replacing, damaged subsurface drainage layers. Further research is needed to assess the use of geofabrics and moisture in freeze–thaw conditions on drainage layers and surface structures. With further research, the retrofit and repair of existing subpavement systems might become a more economical solution to drainage-caused pavement deterioration issues than complete reconstruction.
  • Fort McCoy Firing Ranges and Military Training Lands: A History and Analysis

    Abstract: The US Congress codified the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the nation’s most effective cultural resources legislation to date, mostly through establishing the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The NHPA requires Federal agencies to address their cultural resources, which are defined as any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object. Section 110of the NHPA requires Federal agencies to inventory and evaluate their cultural resources, and Section 106 requires them to determine the effect of Federal undertakings on those potentially eligible for the NRHP. Fort McCoy is entirely within Monroe County in west-central Wisconsin. It was first established as the Sparta Maneuver Tract in 1909.The post was renamed Camp McCoy in 1926. Since 1974, it has been known as Fort McCoy. This report provides a historic context for ranges, features, and buildings associated with the post’s training lands in support of Section 110 of the NHPA.
  • Evaluation of a Prototype Integrated Pavement Screed for Screeding Asphalt or Concrete Crater Repairs

    Abstract: Finishing, or screeding, the hot mix asphalt or rapid-setting concrete surface of a crater repair is important for rapid airfield damage recovery (RADR) since it determines the aircraft ride surface quality. The objective of RADR repairs is to expediently produce a flush repair, defined as ±0.75 in. of the surrounding pavement surface, with minimal logistical and personnel burden. Multiple screeds were previously evaluated; the most recent project proposed a prototype design of a telehandler-operated integrated screed for both small and large repairs using asphalt or concrete. This project’s objective was to finalize the prototype design and fabricate and test the prototype RADR screed. The prototype RADR screed was successful for small repairs (8.5×8.5 ft). Large repairs (30×30 ft) were generally successful with modest repair quality criteria (RQC) issues being the only notable deficiencies. Large concrete repair RQC issues were attributed to plastic formwork movement, and large asphalt repair RQC issues were attributed to compaction issues or improper roll-down factors. Methods to mitigate these factors were investigated but should be further evaluated. Overall, the RADR screed was successful from technical perspectives but, functionally, is 600-800 lb overweight. Weight reduction should be considered before entering production.
  • Standard Operating Procedures for Open-Air Solid Waste Burning in Contingency Locations

    Abstract: Service engineer doctrine and field manuals, such as Army Techniques Publication 3-34.40, Technical Manual 5-634, and Army Regulation 420-1, offer guidance on solid waste management but do not provide the level of detail and practical guidance for open-air burning of solid waste to reduce risk to the Warfighter. Studies have shown that there could be ill health effects to service members from exposure to toxins from open-air burning. Further practical guidance is necessary to ensure that if there are no other means available for solid waste disposal, the risks associated with open-air burning are minimized as much as possible during contingency operations. Commands have limited resources and reduced personnel available to study which open-air burning procedures are optimal based on readiness and mission requirements. Planning for efficiency and risk avoidance in open-air burning operations includes several facets (e.g., site planning, processing, and recordkeeping considerations). This special report provides operational guidance to minimize risk of open-air burning for the Warfighter and other joint service personnel, particularly when there is no other alternative to open-air burning, during initial phase operating a burn pit or for waste management planning to establish standard operating procedures.
  • Effects of Impure Water Sources on Early-Age Properties of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements for Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery

    Abstract: In austere environments with limited access to clean water, it is advantageous to use nonpotable water for construction (i.e., mixing water for concrete.) In rapid-response situations such as rapid airfield damage recovery (RADR), the use of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements is beneficial for expedient pavement repairs because of their rapid strength gain characteristics. However, the hydration products formed by CSA cements are substantially different from those formed by ordinary portland cement and might react differently to impurities that water sources may contain. A laboratory study component investigated the application of various salts and impure sources of mixing water with commercially available CSA cement-based products. A field component studied the application of naturally occurring impure water sources for RADR. Recommendations are made for implementation of impure mixing water for RADR using commercially available flowable fill and concrete products made with CSA cement.
  • Boronic Acid Functionalized Ferrocene Derivatives Towards Fluoride Sensing

    Abstract: In this technical report (TR), a robust, readily synthesized molecule with a ferrocene core appended with one or two boronic acid moieties was designed, synthesized, and used toward F- (free fluoride) detection. Through Lewis acid-base interactions, the boronic acid derivatives are capable of binding with F- in an aqueous solution via ligand exchange reaction and is specific to fluoride ion. Fluoride binding to ferrocene causes significant changes in fluorescence or electrochemical responses that can be monitored with field-portable instrumentation at concentrations below the WHO recommended limit. The F- binding interaction was further monitored via proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). In addition, fluorescent spectroscopy of the boronic acid moiety and electrochemical monitoring of the ferrocene moiety will allow detection and estimation of F- concentration precisely in a solution matrix. The current work shows lower detection limit (LOD) of ~15 µM (285 μg/L) which is below the WHO standards. Preliminary computational calculations showed the boronic acid moieties attached to the ferrocene core interacted with the fluoride ion. Also, the ionization diagrams indicate the amides and the boronic acid groups can be ionized forming strong ionic interactions with fluoride ions in addition to hydrogen bonding interactions.
  • Design, Construction, and Testing of the PFAS Effluent Treatment System (PETS), a Mobile Ion Exchange–Based System for the Treatment of Per-, Poly-Fluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS) Contaminated Water

    Abstract: Poly-,Per-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are versatile chemicals that were incorporated in a wide range of products. One of their most important use was in aqueous film-forming foams for fighting liquid fuel fires. PFAS compounds have recently been identified as potential environmental contaminants. In the United States there are hundreds of potential military sites with PFAS contamination.The ERDC designed and constructed a mobile treatment system to address small sites (250,000 gallons or less) and as a platform to field test new adsorptive media. The PFAS Effluent Treatment System (PETS) has cartridge filters to remove sediments and a granular activated carbon (GAC) media filter to remove organic compounds that might compete with PFAS in the ion exchange process, although it may also remove PFAS too. The last process is an ion exchange resin specifically designed to remove PFAS to a target level of 70 ng/L or less (equivalent to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Health Advisory). The system was tested at Hurlburt Field, a US Air Force facility in Florida and at Naval Support Activity (NSA) Mid-South in Millington, TN.
  • Evaluation of Geocell-Reinforced Backfill for Airfield Pavement Repair

    Abstract: After an airfield has been attacked, temporary airfield pavement repairs should be accomplished quickly to restore flight operations. Often, the repairs are made with inadequate materials and insufficient manpower due to limited available resources. Legacy airfield damage repair (ADR) methods for repairing bomb damage consist of using bomb damage debris to fill the crater, followed by placement of crushed stone or rapid-setting flowable fill backfill with a foreign object debris (FOD) cover. While these backfill methods have provided successful results, they are heavily dependent on specific material and equipment resources that are not always readily available. Under emergency conditions, it is desirable to reduce the logistical burden while providing a suitable repair, especially in areas with weak subgrades. Geocells are cellular confinement systems of interconnected cells that can be used to reinforce geotechnical materials. The primary benefit of geocells is that lower quality backfill materials can be used instead of crushed stone to provide a temporary repair. This report summarizes a series of laboratory and field experiments performed to evaluate different geocell materials and geometries in combinations with a variety of soils to verify their effectiveness at supporting heavy aircraft loads. Results provide specific recommendations for using geocell technology for backfill reinforcement for emergency airfield repairs.
  • Development of Smartphone-Based Semi-Prepared Runway Operations (SPRO) Models and Methods

    Abstract: The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) has developed a method for predicting surface friction response by use of ground vehicles equipped with deceleration-based measurement devices. Specifically, the ERDC has developed models and measurement methods between the Findlay Irvine Mk2 GripTester and a variety of deceleration measurement devices: Bowmonk AFM2 Mk3, Xsens MTi-G-710, two Android smartphones, and two iOS smartphones. These models show positive correlation between ground vehicle deceleration and fixed-slip surface continuous surface friction measurement. This effort extends prior work conducted by the U.S. Army ERDC in developing highly correlative models between the Findlay Irvine Mk2 GripTester and actual C-17 braking deceleration, measured via the runway condition rating (RCR) system. The models and measurement methods detailed here are of considerable use to semi-prepared airfield managers around the world needing to measure safe landing conditions following inclement weather. This work provides the tools necessary for airfield managers to quantify safe landing conditions for C-17 aircraft by using easily obtainable equipment and simple test standards.
  • Demonstration of Subsurface Passive Acoustic Monitoring (SPAM) to Survey for and Estimate Populations of Imperiled Underwater-calling Frogs

    Abstract: The management and recovery of threatened and endangered amphibians on Department of Defense (DoD) lands relies on an understanding of their distribution and abundance. Fortunately, most anuran species can be surveyed acoustically using vocalizations during the breeding season. This work demonstrated the use of subsurface passive acoustic monitoring (SPAM) to survey for rare underwater-calling, at-risk anuran species on DoD installations. We evaluated the performance of SPAM relative to traditional passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) (microphone) and human manual calling survey (MCS) methods. Results showed that SPAM outperformed PAM and MCS in validation experiments where calls were generated underwater; SPAM was less successful than PAM and MCS in the field demonstration. Most leopard frog calls were apparently produced in air despite previous reports of extensive underwater-calling behavior. This project highlights how acoustic information can help address a data gap in the ecology of at-risk species, which can help refine future survey methodology and management efforts. Ultimately, the utility of SPAM for underwater-calling species will depend on the focal species, the landscape where it occurs, and technological considerations available to the surveyor. SPAM is more expensive than traditional methods but, in some situations, may be the only way to effectively detect species.