Publication Notices

Notifications of the Newest Publications and Reports Released by ERDC

Contact ERDC Library

601.501.7632 - text
601.634.2355 - voice


ERDC Library Catalog

Not finding what you are looking for? Search the ERDC Library Catalog

Category: Technology
  • Numerical Analysis of Dike Effects on the Mississippi River Using a Two-Dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics Model (AdH)

    Abstract: This report describes the hydraulic effects of dikes on water surface elevation (WSE) and velocities in the Mississippi River near Vicksburg, MS, from Interstate 20 to Highway 80 using a previously calibrated 2D Adaptive Hydraulics numerical model. Dike heights and their associated hydraulic roughness values were varied to quantify the overall effects of adjustments to dike fields. Steady flows characterized as low, medium, and high conditions were simulated. The WSE and velocity difference plots were generated to illustrate the hydraulic effects on the river under all scenarios discussed above. Overall, the dike adjustments had negligible impacts on WSEs and showed minimal effects on velocities on a system wide scale.
  • National Ordinary High Water Mark Field Delineation Manual for Rivers and Streams : Interim Version

    Abstract: The ordinary high water mark (OHWM) defines the lateral extent of nontidal aquatic features in the absence of adjacent wetlands in the United States. The federal regulatory definition of the OHWM, 33 CFR 328.3(c)(7), states the OHWM is “that line on the shore established by the fluctuations of water and indicated by physical characteristics such as [a] clear, natural line impressed on the bank, shelving, changes in the character of soil, destruction of terrestrial vegetation, the presence of litter and debris, or other appropriate means that consider the characteristics of the surrounding areas.” This is the first manual to present a methodology for nationwide identification and delineation of the OHWM. A two-page data sheet and field procedure outline a weight-of-evidence (WoE) methodology to organize and evaluate observations at stream sites. This manual presents a consistent, science-based method for delineating the OHWM in streams. It also describes regional differences and challenges in identifying the OHWM at sites disturbed by human-induced or natural changes and illustrates how to use remote data to structure field inquiries and interpret field evidence using the principles of fluvial science. The manual demonstrates that, in many landscape settings, the OHWM may be located near the bankfull elevation.
  • The DEM Breakline and Differencing Analysis Tool—Step-by-Step Workflows and Procedures for Effective Gridded DEM Analysis

    Abstract: The DEM Breakline and Differencing Analysis Tool is the result of a multi-year research effort in the analysis of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the extraction of features associated with breaklines identified on the DEM by numerical analysis. Developed in the ENVI/IDL image processing application, the tool is designed to serve as an aid to research in the investigation of DEMs by taking advantage of local variation in the height. A set of specific workflow exercises is described as applied to a diverse set of four sample DEMs. These workflows instruct the user in applying the tool to extract and analyze features associated with terrain, vegetative canopy, and built structures. Optimal processing parameter choices, subject to user modification, are provided along with sufficient explanation to train the user in elevation model analysis through the creation of customized output overlays.
  • Cross Country Mobility (CCM) Modeling Using Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN)

    Abstract: Cross country mobility (CCM) models terrain that has insufficient or unavailable infrastructure for crossing. This historically has been done with either hand-drawn and estimated maps or with raster-based terrain analysis, both of which have their own strengths and weaknesses. In this report the authors explore the possibility of using triangulated irregular networks (TINs) as a means of representing terrain characteristics used in CCM and discuss the possibilities of using such networks for routing capabilities in lieu of a traditional road-based network. The factors used to calculate CCM are modified from previous methods to capture a more accurate measurement of terrain characteristics. Using a TIN to store and represent CCM information achieves comparable results to raster cost analysis with the additional benefits of an integrated network useful for visualization and routing and a reduction in the number of related files. Additionally, TINs can in some cases more accurately show the contours of the landscape and reveal feature details or impediments that may be lost within a raster, thus improving the quality of CCM overlays.
  • Understanding Plant Volatiles for Environmental Awareness: Chemical Composition in Response to Natural Light Cycles and Wounding

    Abstract: Plants emit a bouquet of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to both biotic and abiotic stresses and, simultaneously, eavesdrop on emitted signals to activate direct and indirect defenses. By gaining even a slight insight into the semantics of interplant communications, a unique awareness of the operational environment may be obtainable (e.g., knowledge of a disturbance within). In this effort, we used five species of plants, Arabidopsis thaliana, Panicum virgatum, Festuca rubra, Tradescantia zebrina, and Achillea millefolium, to produce and query VOCs emitted in response to mechanical wounding and light cycles. These plants provide a basis for further investigation in this communication system as they span model organisms, common house plants, and Arctic plants. The VOC composition was complex; our parameter filtering often enabled us to reduce the noise to fewer than 50 compounds emitted over minutes to hours in a day. We were able to detect and measure the plant response through two analytical methods. This report documents the methods used, the data collected, and the analyses performed on the VOCs to determine if they can be used to increase environmental awareness of the battlespace.
  • Meteorological Influences of a Major Dust Storm in Southwest Asia during July–August 2018

    Abstract: Dust storms can be hazardous for aviation, military activities, and respiratory health and can occur on a wide variety of spatiotemporal scales with little to no warning. To properly forecast these storms, a comprehensive understanding of the meteorological dynamics that control their evolution is a prerequisite. To that end, we chose a major dust storm that occurred in Southwest Asia during July–August 2018 and conducted an observation-based analysis of the meteorological conditions that influenced the storm’s evolution. We found that the main impetus behind the dust storm was a large-scale meteorological system (i.e., a cyclone) that affected Southwest Asia. It seems that cascading effects from this system produced a smaller, near-surface warm anomaly in Mesopotamia that may have triggered the dust storm, guided its trajectory over the Arabian Peninsula, and potentially catalyzed the development of a small low-pressure system over the southeastern end of the peninsula. This low-pressure system may have contributed to some convective activity over the same region. This type of analysis may provide important information about large-scale meteorological forcings for not only this particular dust storm but also for future dust storms in Southwest Asia and other regions of the world.
  • Network Development and Autonomous Vehicles: A Smart Transportation Testbed at Fort Carson

    Abstract: In this work, a smart transportation testbed was utilized at Fort Carson to demonstrate three use cases for the primary purpose to plan, develop, demonstrate, and employ autonomous vehicle technologies at military installations and within the surrounding communities to evaluate commercially available Connected and Automated Vehicles and the potential to reduce base operating costs, improve safety and quality of life for military service members and their families, and deliver services more efficiently and effectively. To meet this purpose, an automated vehicle shuttle, an unmanned aerial system, and a wireless network were used and tested during the project. Results for the automated shuttle indicated that de-spite the quantity of data generated by operations, the contractors may not be ready to share information in a readily usable format. Additionally, successful use by the public is predicated on both knowing their mobility patterns and staff members promoting trust in the technology to prospective riders. Results for the unmanned aerial system showed successful identification of foreign object debris and runway cracks at the airfield. The wireless network is now operational and is used for additional work which utilizes the installed traffic cameras.
  • A 𝘬-Means Analysis of the Voltage Response of a Soil-Based Microbial Fuel Cell to an Injected Military-Relevant Compound (Urea)

    Abstract: Biotechnology offers new ways to use biological processes as environmental sensors. For example, in soil microbial fuel cells (MFCs), soil electro-genic microorganisms are recruited to electrodes embedded in soil and produce electricity (measured by voltage) through the breakdown of substrate. Because the voltage produced by the electrogenic microbes is a function of their environment, we hypothesize that the voltage may change in a characteristic manner given environmental disturbances, such as the contamination by exogenous material, in a way that can be modelled and serve as a diagnostic. In this study, we aimed to statistically analyze voltage from soil MFCs injected with urea as a proxy for gross contamination. Specifically, we used 𝘬-means clustering to discern between voltage output before and after the injection of urea. Our results showed that the 𝘬-means algorithm recognized 4–6 distinctive voltage regions, defining unique periods of the MFC voltage that clearly identify pre- and postinjection and other phases of the MFC lifecycle. This demonstrates that 𝘬-means can identify voltage patterns temporally, which could be further improve the sensing capabilities of MFCs by identifying specific regions of dissimilarity in voltage, indicating changes in the environment.
  • Cold Regions Vehicle Start: Next-Generation Lithium-Ion Battery Technologies for Stryker Vehicles

    Abstract: Operating vehicles in extremely cold environments is a significant problem for not only the public but also the military. The Department of Defense has encountered issues when trying to reliably cold start large, heavy-duty military vehicles, specifically the M1126 Stryker Combat Vehicle, in cold regions. As noted in previous work, the issue stems from the current battery technology’s limited temperature range. This current project utilized the protocol established in the previous phase to evaluate next-generation lithium-ion battery technologies for use in cold regions. Selected battery technologies met necessary military specifications for use in large military combat vehicles and were evaluated using a mechanical load system developed in previous work to simulate the starting of a Stryker engine. This work also evaluated the performance of the existing battery technology of a Stryker under Alaskan winter temperatures, which will verify the accuracy of the simulated cold room testing on the mechanical load system. The results of the tests showed that while the system was able to reliably operate down to −20°C, the battery management system encountered challenges at the lower end of the temperature range. This technology has a potential to reliably support cold regions operations but needs further evaluation.
  • Dissolution of NTO, DNAN, and Insensitive Munitions Formulations and Their Fates in Soils: SERDP ER-2220

    Abstract: The US military is interested in replacing TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) with DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), which have similar explosive characteristics but are less likely to detonate unintentionally. Although these replacements are good explosives, basic information about their fate and transport was needed to evaluate their environmental impact and life-cycle management. This project measured their dissolution, photodegradation, and how aqueous solutions interact with soils, data critical to determining exposure potential and, consequently, risk.