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Category: Research
  • Investigating Minimum Exposure Time Requirements of Diquat for Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus) Control

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the minimum exposure time requirements for submersed treatments of diquat to effectively control flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus L.). Identifying these parameters will provide critical information for the operational management of this species in high water exchange scenarios.
  • Testing the Compatibility of the Sediment Budget Analysis System 2020 with Various Data Sources

    Abstract: This Regional Sediment Management technical note (RSM TN) provides the workflow for implementing results of various toolsets into the Sediment Budget Analysis System (SBAS). SBAS is a commonly used toolset developed by the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (ERDC-CHL) for creating and visualizing sediment budgets. Recent upgrades to SBAS have warranted an investigation into its ability to accurately accept various data sources. Three case studies are presented showcasing the variety of acceptable tools, both ERDC-CHL published and custom-user created.
  • A Generalized Photon-Tracking Approach to Simulate Spectral Snow Albedo and Transmittance Using X-ray Microtomography and Geometric Optics

    Abstract: A majority of snow radiative transfer models (RTMs) treat snow as a collection of idealized grains rather than an organized ice–air matrix. Here we present a generalized multi-layer photon-tracking RTM that simulates light reflectance and transmittance of snow based on X-ray micro- tomography images, treating snow as a coherent 3D structure rather than a collection of grains. The model uses a blended approach to expand ray-tracing techniques applied to sub-1 cm3 snow samples to snowpacks of arbitrary depths. While this framework has many potential applications, this study’s effort is focused on simulating reflectance and transmittance in the visible and near infrared (NIR) through thin snow- packs as this is relevant for surface energy balance and remote sensing applications. We demonstrate that this framework fits well within the context of previous work and capably reproduces many known optical properties of a snow surface, including the dependence of spectral reflectance on the snow specific surface area and incident zenith angle as well as the surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To evaluate the model, we compare it against reflectance data collected with a spectroradiometer at a field site in east-central Vermont. In this experiment, painted panels were inserted at various depths beneath the snow to emulate thin snow. The model compares remarkably well against the reflectance measured with a spectroradiometer, with an average RMSE of 0.03 in the 400–1600 nm range. Sensitivity simulations using this model indicate that snow transmittance is greatest in the visible wavelengths, limiting light penetration to the top 6 cm of the snowpack for fine-grain snow but increasing to 12 cm for coarse-grain snow. These results suggest that the 5% transmission depth in snow can vary by over 6 cm according to the snow type.
  • Application of a Satellite-Retrieved Sheltering Parameterization (v1.0) for Dust Event Simulation with WRF-Chem v4.1

    Abstract: Roughness features (e.g., rocks, vegetation, furrows) that attenuate wind flow over the soil surface can affect the magnitude and distribution of sediment transport in aeolian environments. Existing transport models often rely on vegetation attributes derived from static land use datasets or remotely sensed greenness indicators to incorporate sheltering effects on simulated particle mobilization. These approaches do not represent the 3D nature or spatiotemporal changes of roughness element sheltering and ignore the sheltering contribution of nonvegetation roughness features and brown vegetation common to dryland environments. We used an albedo-based sheltering parameterization in a dust transport modeling application of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). This method estimates sheltering effects on surface wind friction speeds and dust entrainment from the shadows cast by subgrid-scale roughness elements. We applied the albedo-derived drag partition to the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) dust emission module and studied simulated PM10 concentrations using the Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model as implemented in WRF-Chem v4.1. Our results demonstrate how dust transport simulation and forecasting with the AFWA dust module can be improved in vegetated drylands by calculating dust emission flux with surface wind friction speed from a drag partition treatment.
  • Small Plot Applications of Florpyrauxifen –Benzyl (Procellacor SC™) for Control of Monoecious Hydrilla in Roanoke Rapids Lake, NC

    Abstract: Four demonstration plots were selected at Roanoke Rapids Lake, NC to evaluate water exchange and aqueous herbicide residues in stands of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) following treatment with rhodamine wt dye and florpyrauxifen-benzyl to control monecious hydrilla. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl (Procellacor™ SC) was applied in combination with Rhodamine WT (RWT) at two of the plots. Dye measurements and herbicide residue samples were collected at specific time intervals to draw comparisons between herbicide and RWT dye dissipation. The two additional plots served as reference plots to the treatment plots. Pre- and post-treatment vegetation surveys were conducted to evaluate monoecious hydrilla control and non-target species response. RWT dye and herbicide residue data indicated rapid water exchange was occurring with each treatment plot. As a result, florpyrauxifen-benzyl concentration and exposure times (CETs) towards monoecious hydrilla were not sufficient to achieve adequate control by 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). To reduce the impact of hydraulic complexity and improve herbicide efficacy, treatments should coincide with minimal reservoir discharge events to extend herbicide CET relationships. Evaluations of florpyrauxifen-benzyl on late season, mature plants may have impacted herbicide efficacy. Evaluations should be conducted earlier in the growing season, on young, actively growing plants, to discern potential differences in efficacy due to treatment timing and phenology. More information on herbicide concentration and exposure time relationships for monoecious hydrilla should be developed in growth chamber and mesocosm settings to improve species selective management of monoecious hydrilla in hydrodynamic reservoirs.
  • Extraction and Analysis of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) from Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) Films Using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS

    OBJECTIVE: This work was in response to the Defense Logistic Agency’s (DLA) Subsistence Network Broad Agency Announcement, BAA-0003-16 addressing 2019 NDAA Section 329 that states packaging materials used for Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) that contact food products must be free of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). This was addressed by determining the presence or absence of PFAS on MREs by extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Any samples positive for PFAS were quantitated using LC triple quadrupole (QqQ) MS at the US Army Engineering and Research Development Center (ERDC) and by high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (qTOF) MS and GC-MS at Oregon State University (OSU).
  • Architectural Survey of Eight Ohio Army National Guard Armories, 1971–1977

    Abstract: This document is an architectural survey of eight armories, seven field maintenance shops (FMS; three detached and four attached to the armory), and ten metal storage buildings utilized by the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG), located across the state of Ohio. The armories and OMS were constructed or received extensive renovation and additions between 1971 and 1977, while the majority of the metal storage buildings were constructed in the 1980s. This survey satisfies Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) as amended and was used to recommend the eligibility of these buildings and structures for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). It is the recommendation of this report that two armories; Alliance Armory (1976) and Xenia Armory (1975) and one associated support building; Xenia motor storage building (1975) are significant under National Register of Historic Places criteria and retain enough integrity to be individually eligible for the NRHP. Volume II of this report is published separately and contains the ERDC-CERL architectural survey forms.
  • Mississippi River Climate Model–Based Hydrograph Projections at the Tarbert Landing Location

    Abstract: To better understand and prepare for the possible effects associated with potential climate changes on the lower Mississippi River, the State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority sought information on the historical, current, and projected future hydrodynamics of the Mississippi River. To this end, flow duration curves (FDC) for the Tarbert Landing location were generated, based on climate models derived from two of the four scenarios of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5), multimodel ensemble representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The global CMIP5 datasets were used by the variable infiltration capacity land surface model to produce a runoff dataset, using a bias-correction spatial disaggregation approach. The runoff datasets were then applied to simulate streamflow using the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID) river routing model. Based on the streamflow, FDCs were calculated for 16 CMIP5 as well as observed historical data at the Tarbert Landing location. Key observations from the results are that the 90th percentile exceedance of the simulated versus the observed flows is more frequent for the RCP 8.5 scenario than for the RCP 4.5 scenario and that the maximum annual flows for the RCP 8.5 scenario are generally smaller than for the RCP 4.5 scenario.
  • Geomorphic Feature Extraction to Support the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative’s Sediment Budget and Geomorphic Vulnerability Index for Lake Michigan

    Purpose: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering technical note (CHETN) details a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology to produce advanced lidar-derived datasets for use in a coastal erosion vulnerability analysis conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and other federal partners for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI).
  • Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data Case Study: Identifying Unofficial Mooring Areas along the Upper Mississippi River

    Purpose: This Dredging Operations and Technical Support (DOTS) program technical note presents the results of a study undertaken at the request of staff from the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Rock Island District (MVR) as part of a larger effort examining the potential creation of seven new permanent mooring cells along the Upper Mississippi River in proximity to lock and dam (LD) locations selected by MVR. MVR staff were interested in evaluating vessel traffic and identifying unofficial mooring areas (i.e., waiting areas) in the vicinity of LD7, LD10, LD11, LD14, LD15, LD20, and LD22; they were also interested in travel times from those unofficial mooring areas to the destination lock. The search distance for unofficial mooring areas was limited to 20 miles from the lock, or the distance to the next closest lock if less than 20 miles, in the appropriate direction (i.e., upstream or downstream), as specified by MVR staff.