Publication Notices

Notifications of New Publications Released by ERDC

Contact Us






ERDC Library Catalog

Not finding what you are looking for? Search the ERDC Library Catalog

Category: Technology
  • Pattern Language for a More Resilient Future

    Abstract: The Department of the Army (DA) manages millions of acres of land for military use. Military installations and other US DoD operations contain architectural structures and civil infrastructure that require continuous improvements to resiliency. This includes resiliency in the form of protection against both natural and man-made disasters. This document seeks to identify multiple risks to infrastructure and people and encourages open dialogue for creative solutions. Designers and engineers as well as other disciplines can work together to achieve higher resiliency in both new and renovated work. The following sections are created to provide a starting guide, utilizing various tools to discover the best resilient design strategies for your building. This special report will argue for actionable design strategies; drawing inspiration from historical building forms, while also looking toward emerging technologies that should be further explored.
  • A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Riverine Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of the Piedmont Region of the United States

    Abstract: The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach is used for developing and applying models for the site-specific assessment of wetland functions. It was initially designed for use in the context of the Clean Water Act Section 404 Regulatory Program permit review process to analyze project alternatives, minimize impacts, assess unavoidable impacts, determine mitigation requirements, and monitor the success of compensatory mitigation. However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the design of wetland restoration projects, projecting ecological outcomes, developing success criteria and performance standards, and adaptive monitoring and management of wetlands. This guidebook provides an overview of the HGM approach including classification and characterization of the principal alluvial riverine wetlands identified in the Piedmont physiography. Eight potential subclasses of Piedmont wetlands, including Headwater, Low- and Mid-gradient Riverine, Floodplain Depression, Footslope Seeps, Flats, Precipitation Depressions, and Fringe wetlands were recognized. However, the occurrence of Flats, Precipitation Depressions, and Fringe wetlands in the Piedmont, are uncommon and not generally associated with alluvial riverine systems which is the subject of this Guidebook. Detailed HGM assessment models and protocols are presented for the five most common Piedmont riverine subclasses: Headwater, Low- and Mid-gradient Riverine, Floodplain Depression, and Footslope Seep. For each wetland subclass, the guidebook presents (a) the rationale used to select the wetland functions considered in the assessment process, (b) the rationale used to select assessment models, and (c) the functional index calibration curves developed from reference wetlands used in the assessment models. The guidebook outlines an assessment protocol for using the model variables and functional indices to assess each wetland subclass. The appendices provide field data collection forms. In addition, an automated spreadsheet model is provided to make calculations.
  • Development and Characterization of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete for the Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Structures

    Abstract: This report details the history of vertical lock wall repairs and the development and laboratory characterization of an ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) using locally sourced materials for improved durability of lock walls subjected to impact and abrasion from navigational vessels. This UHPC, referred to as Lock-Tuf, has been designed for use in a precast environment with ambient curing methods and serves as a material proof-of-concept for future lock wall rehabilitations. Mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength, flexural response, tensile capacity, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance have been quantified experimentally.
  • Low Size, Weight, Power, and Cost (SWaP-C) Payload for Autonomous Navigation and Mapping on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Abstract: Autonomous navigation and unknown environment exploration with an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) is extremely challenging. This report investigates a mapping and exploration solution utilizing low size, weight, power, and cost payloads. The platform presented here leverages simultaneous localization and mapping to efficiently explore unknown areas by finding navigable routes. The solution utilizes a diverse sensor payload that includes wheel encoders, 3D lidar, and red-green-blue and depth cameras. The main goal of this effort is to leverage path planning and navigation for mapping and exploration with a UGV to produce an accurate 3D map. The solution provided also leverages the Robot Operating System
  • Arctic Seed Sterilization and Germination

    Abstract: We conducted growth chamber experiments to overcome challenges of native seed germination relating to disease and germination time. We selected five northern species, Eriophorum vaginatum, E. virginicum, Anemone patens var. multifida, Polemonium reptans, and Senecio congestus, for their native ranges and commercial-nursery availability. Recommended stratification time for each species was either unknown or a minimum of 60 days. Seeds were sterilized with 70% ethanol, 10% hydrogen peroxide, or UVC light to identify which method most effectively prevented pathogen infection. To determine if stratification time could be reduced, seeds underwent a 30-day cold, moist stratification. We tested which growth medium was most conducive to germination of the sterilized, stratified seeds: filter paper or sterilized potting soil. In a separate experiment, we tested if three different levels of gibberellic acid (GA3; 0, 500, and 1000 ppm) could reduce stratification time to 15 days. The 70% ethanol was effective in a seed surface sterilization; an average of 84% of all seeds for all species treated showed no contamination. Germination following a 30-day cold, moist stratification was unsuccessful for most species tested in both growth media. Here, 1000 ppm GA3 with a 15-day cold, moist stratification showed considerable success with P. reptans.
  • Microbial Activity in Dust-Contaminated Antarctic Snow

    Abstract: During weather events, particles can accumulate on the snow near the Pegasus ice and Phoenix compacted-snow Runways at the US McMurdo Station in Antarctica. The deposited particles melt into the surface, initially forming steep-sided holes, which can widen into patches of weak and rotten snow and ice. These changes negatively impact the ice and snow runways and snow roads trafficked by vehicles. To understand the importance of microbes on this process, we examined deposited dust particles and their microbial communities in snow samples collected near the runways. Snow samples were analyzed at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory where we performed a respiration study to measure the microbial activity during a simulated melt, isolated microorganisms, examined particle-size distribution, and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We measured higher levels of carbon dioxide production from a sample containing more dust than from a sample containing less dust, a finding consistent with viable dust-associated microbial communities. Additionally, eleven microorganisms were isolated and cultured from snow samples containing dust particles. While wind patterns and satellite images suggest that the deposited particles originate from nearby Black Island, comparisons of the particle size and chemical composition were inconclusive.
  • Plant Phenology Drives Seasonal Changes in Shear Stress Partitioning in a Semi-Arid Rangeland

    Abstract: Accurate representation of surface roughness in predictive models of aeolian sediment transport and dust emission is required for model accuracy. While past studies have examined roughness effects on drag partitioning, the spatial and temporal variability of surface shear velocity and the shear stress ratio remain poorly described. Here, we use a four-month dataset of total shear velocity (u*) and soil surface shear velocity (us*) measurements to examine the spatiotemporal variability of the shear stress ratio (R) before, during, and after vegetation green-up at a honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) shrub-invaded grassland in the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. Results show that vegetation green-up, the emergence of leaves, led to increased drag and surface aerodynamic sheltering and a reduction in us* and R magnitude and variability. We found that us* decreased from 20% to 5% of u* as the vegetation form drag and its sheltering effect increased. Similarly, the spatiotemporal variability of R was found to be linked directly to plant phenological phases. We conclude that drag partition schemes should incorporate seasonal vegetation change, via dynamic drag coefficients and/or R, to accurately predict the timing and magnitude of seasonal aeolian sediment fluxes.
  • Enhancing Building Thermal Comfort: A Review of Phase Change Materials in Concrete

    Abstract: The DoD accounts for over 1% of the country's total electricity consumption. However, DoD bases heavily rely on vulnerable commercial power grids, susceptible to disruptions from outdated infrastructure, weather-related incidents, and direct attacks. To enhance energy efficiency and resilience, it is imperative to address energy demand in buildings, especially heating and cooling. This study focuses on phase change materials (PCMs) incorporated into concrete to enhance thermal control and reduce energy consumption. Though PCMs have shown promise in heat transfer and energy storage applications, their integration into concrete faces challenges. Concerns include potential reduction in compressive strength, impacts on workability and setting time, effects on density and porosity, durability, and higher cost than traditional concrete. This report examines current obstacles hindering the use of PCMs in concrete and proposes opportunities for extensive research and application. By selecting appropriate PCMs and additives, comparable strength to control samples can be achieved. Moreover, specific techniques for incorporating PCMs into concrete demonstrate greater effectiveness. Embracing PCMs in concrete can significantly contribute to energy-efficient and resilient DoD installations.
  • Incorporating Advanced Snow Microphysics and Lateral Transport into the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) Land Surface Model

    Abstract: The dynamic state of the land surface presents challenges and opportunities for military and civil operations in extreme cold environments. In particular, the effects of snow and frozen ground on Soldier and vehicle mobility are hard to overstate. Current authoritative weather and land models are run at global scales (i.e., dx > 10 km) and are of limited use at the Soldier scale (dx < 100 m). Here, we describe several snow physics upgrades made to the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) community land surface model (LSM). These upgrades include a blowing snow overlay to simulate the lateral redistribution of snow by the wind and the addition of new prognostic snow microstructure variables, namely grain size and bond radius. These additions represent major upgrades to the snow component of the Noah-MP LSM because they incorporate processes and methods used in more specialized snow modeling frameworks. These upgrades are demonstrated in idealized and real-world applications. The test simulations were promising and show that the newly added snow physics replicate observed behavior with reasonable accuracy. We hope these upgrades facilitate ongoing and future research on characterizing the effects of the integrated snow and soil land surface in extreme cold environments at the tactical scale.
  • Evaluation of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Methods for Wood Power Poles

    Abstract: This technical report aims to test the effectiveness of several non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies on wood utility poles to detect deterioration. The project will assess commercially available devices using sound velocity and drilling resistance methods for in-field measurements. The goal is to extend the lifetime of wood poles, prevent unexpected failure, and enhance their in-service life beyond the current 75-year expectation. Despite the benefits of wood poles, it is difficult to obtain reliable deterioration metrics on in-service poles, which can lead to premature decommissioning or pole failure. NDT methods have been developed to replace labor-intensive methods, but none have been largely adopted in common practice. Therefore, creating a database of validated data would expedite adoption. Integrating precise and efficient wood utility pole NDT can increase installation energy resiliency and facility sustainment in a fiscally responsible way, ensuring high standards of delivery of services.