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Category: Publications: Engineer Research & Development Center (ERDC)
  • Business Continuity Management, Operational Resilience, and Organizational Resilience: Commonalities, Distinctions, and Synthesis

    Abstract: The concepts of business continuity management, operational resilience, and organizational resilience each refer to actions that businesses and organizations can take in anticipating and responding to disruptions. However, the existing definitions and usages are difficult to differentiate due to overlapping objectives, implementation processes, and outcomes. This article examines definitions and approaches for these three concepts and suggest a framework to operationalize methods and tools relevant to each. These definitions emphasize three dyads: risk versus resilience; organizational processes versus assets; and normal operating conditions versus crisis conditions. Using these dyads to differentiate the concepts of business continuity management, operational resilience, and organizational resilience can support planners in clarifying objectives and identifying which approach will be most beneficial as businesses or organizations plan for and encounter disruptions. This article evaluates these concepts by examining illustrative examples of disruptions and responses.
  • Vessel Impacted by Structure on the Ohio River: Louisville District

    Abstract: This Dredging Operations Technical Support (DOTS) Program technical note presents the results of a study undertaken by the Navigation Branch, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL), at the request from the Louisville District (LRL) to examine an incident involving a single vessel and structure in a high-water condition. The vessel-position data used in this request were broadcast from an onboard Automatic Identification System (AIS) transceiver and received by US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)–owned Lock Operations Management Application (LOMA) tower sites located along the Ohio River.
  • Snow-Impacted National Inventory of Dams by GAGESII Watershed

    Abstract: This Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC) Technical Note describes the development of a set of locations within the contiguous United States (CONUS) where snowmelt is a component of the annual streamflow. The locations are selected from the US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow II (GAGESII) and National Inventory of Dams (NID) data sets. The 30-year normal snow regimes were used to identify all GAGESII watersheds that have any of the basin delineated as transitional (rain/snow), snow dominated, or perennial snow zones. NID dams that are within snow affected GAGESII watersheds are included in the data set. The purpose of this ERDC Technical Note is to describe the development of a comprehensive data set of CONUS GAGESII and dam infrastructure affected by snow changing regimes.
  • Low Sill Control Structure: Physical Modeling Investigation of Velocities Downstream of the End Sill

    Abstract: The model investigation reported herein describes the process to measure velocities at various locations downstream of the Low Sill Control Structure using an existing 1:55 Froude-scaled physical model. To collect these measurements, an acoustic-Doppler velocimeter was deployed downstream of the structure at varying locations and depths. A total of 79 velocity measurements were taken across nine flow conditions (discharge, head and tailwater elevations, and gate openings) provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District.
  • Properties and Mechanisms for PFAS Adsorption to Aqueous Clay and Humic Soil Components

    Abstract: The proliferation of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) has resulted in global concerns over contamination and bioaccumulation. PFAS compounds tend to remain in the environment indefinitely, and research is needed to elucidate the ultimate fate of these molecules. We have investigated the model humic substance and model clay surfaces as a potential environmental sink for the adsorption and retention of three representative PFAS molecules with varying chain length and head groups. Utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, we quantify the ability of pyrophyllite and the humic substance to favorably adsorb these PFAS molecules from aqueous solution. We have observed that the hydrophobic nature of the pyrophyllite surface makes the material well suited for the sorption of medium- and long-tail PFAS moieties. Similarly, we find a preference for the formation of a monolayer on the surface for long-chain PFAS molecules at high concentration. Furthermore, we discussed trends in the adsorption mechanisms for the fate and transport of these compounds, as well as potential approaches for their environmental remediation.
  • Application of Multi-fidelity Methods to Rotorcraft Performance Assessment

    Abstract: We present a Python-based multi-fidelity tool to estimate rotorcraft performance metrics. We use Gaussian-Process regression (GPR) methods to adaptively build a surrogate model using a small number of high-fidelity CFD points to improve estimates of performance metrics from a medium-fidelity comprehensive analysis model. To include GPR methods in our framework, we used the EmuKit Python package. Our framework adaptively chooses new high-fidelity points to run in regions where the model variance is high. These high-fidelity points are used to update the GPR model; convergence is reached when model variance is below a pre-determined level. To efficiently use our framework on large computer clusters, we implemented this in Galaxy Simulation Builder, an analysis tool that is designed to work on large parallel computing environments. The program is modular, and is designed to be agnostic to the number and names of dependent variables and to the number and identifying labels of the fidelity levels. We demonstrate our multi-fidelity modeling framework on a rotorcraft collective sweep (hover) simulation and compare the accuracy and time savings of the GPR model to that of a simulation run with CFD only.
  • Coastal Breeding Bird Phenology on the Dredged-Material Islands of the Baptiste Collette Bayou, US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, Louisiana

    Abstract: Coastal bird populations in North America have experienced significant population declines over the past four decades, and many species have become dependent upon human-made islands and other sediment-based habitats created through dredged material deposition. We monitored the breeding phenology of coastal bird populations utilizing dredged-material islands and open depositional areas in the Baptiste Collette Bayou in coastal Louisiana. Monitoring began in early May, prior to when most coastal species begin nesting, and continued through late August, when most breeding activity has ceased. Semimonthly surveys included area searches by foot and boat. Two deposition areas and one island supported large numbers of foraging, roosting, or breeding birds; surveys on these areas included using spotting scopes to identify species and count nests or young. Six islands and two open deposition areas were monitored. We also collected high-definition and lidar imagery using an uncrewed aerial system (UAS) in June, during peak nesting season. We recorded 77,474 cumulative detections of 68 species. Virtually all colonial nesting birds (terns and skimmers) nested on Gunn Island in 2021. We discuss these results in the context of dredged-material deposition by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, and offer recommendations for management of these areas.
  • Management Strategy for Overwintering Cyanobacteria in Sediments Contributing to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Purpose: Cyanobacteria that cause harmful algal blooms (HABs) can overwinter in sediments as resting cells (akinetes or vegetative colonies) and contribute to seasonal bloom resurgences. However, to date there has been limited focus on management tactics specifically targeting the control of cyanobacterial sources from sediments. Targeting resting cells in sediments for preventative management may provide a viable approach to delay onset and mitigate blooms (Calomeni et al. 2022). However, there are limited resources for this novel strategy. Given the growing global impact of HABs, there is a need to develop management strategies focused on sediments as a potential source and contributor to HABs. Therefore, the objective of this report is to provide a management strategy in terms of approaches, information, and case study examples for managing overwintering cyanobacteria in sediments with the goal of mitigating seasonal HAB occurrences.
  • Spherical Shock Waveform Reconstruction by Heterodyne Interferometry

    Abstract: The indirect measurement of shock waveforms by acousto-optic sensing requires a method to reconstruct the field from the projected data. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, one approach is to reconstruct the field by the Abel inversion integral transform. When the acousto-optic sensing modality measures the change in optical phase difference time derivative, as for a heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer, e.g., a laser Doppler vibrometer, the reconstructed field is the fluctuating refractive index time derivative. A technique is derived that reconstructs the fluctuating index directly by assuming plane wave propagation local to a probe beam. With synthetic data, this approach is compared to the Abel inversion integral transform and then applied to experimental data of laser-induced shockwaves. Time waveforms are reconstructed with greater accuracy except for the tail of the waveform that maps spatially to positions near a virtual origin. Furthermore, direct reconstruction of the fluctuating index field eliminates the required time integration and results in more accurate shock waveform peak values, rise times, and positive phase duration.
  • Monitoring Geomorphology to Inform Ecological Outcomes Downstream of Reservoirs Affected by Sediment Release

    Abstract: Increasingly, reservoir managers are seeking techniques that improve sediment management while considering long-term sedimentation and reduced operational flexibility. These techniques, often termed sustainable sediment management, involve passing sediment through reservoirs and into downstream rivers. Conceptually, restoring sediment continuity can benefit ecosystem function by increasing floodplain connectivity, contributing to the heterogeneity of channel geomorphology, and supporting the continuity of nutrient cycling. However, when a change is made to operations, geomorphic changes may need to be monitored to document benefits and mitigate any unexpected effects of the change. This investigation develops a geomorphic monitoring plan for downstream reaches affected by sediment-release operations at reservoirs. The monitoring objectives are aligned with potential geomorphic change caused by changes to sediment supply and the associated effects on river function. A tiered approach is presented to explain the quality of information that can be assessed from increasing levels of data collection. A general conceptual model is described in which geomorphic data may be linked to physical habitat conditions and, therefore, ecological processes. The geomorphic monitoring plan for the Tuttle Creek Reservoir water injection dredging (WID) pilot project is presented as a case study. This technical note establishes a general framework for monitoring the design for sustainable sediment management in different ecological and geomorphic contexts.