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  • Sensitivity of Simulated Flaw-Height Estimates to Phased Array Scan Parameters

    Abstract: Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for detecting and sizing flaws in welds. Estimates of flaw size are sensitive to a variety of PAUT scan parameters. In this study, estimates of flaw height are simulated using computer software. The sensitivity of these estimates to selected PAUT scan parameters is analyzed to identify those that have the greatest influence on estimates of flaw height. Understanding how varying different parameters within a phased array instrument affects the accuracy of flaw-height estimates helps to validate PAUT scan procedures and improve flaw-height estimates. For this research, a series of permutations on selected flaws were performed to see how certain parameters affect the accuracy in sizing flaw height. In addition, an analysis on how beam spread leads to flaw sizing inaccuracies was also conducted as part of this work.
  • Repair of Corroded Steel Girders of Hydraulic Steel Structures (HSS) Using Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRP)

    Abstract: Although steel hydraulic structures have a protective system to prevent corrosion, this type of deterioration will eventually occur due to the constant exposure to harsh environmental conditions. There are several techniques that can be implemented to repair corroded steel structural elements. This report presents a numerical study to evaluate the mechanical behavior of corroded steel girders used in hydraulic steel structures and to evaluate several carbon fiber–reinforced polymers (CFRP) layups to repair them. The girders were modeled as simply supported with four-point loading boundary conditions. The corrosion deterioration was modeled as loss in section as 10%, 25%, and 40%. The effectiveness of the deterioration was established based on the level of stresses at the steel compared with the undamaged condition after it is strengthened with CFRP. It was found that CFRP repair is more practical for reducing the stresses at the steel in the shear dominated zone if deterioration is below 25%. At the tensile dominated zone, CFRP is effective for reducing the stresses for deterioration below 40%.
  • Evaluation of Structural and Operational Alternatives to Optimize the Distribution of Water and Sediment in the Passes of the Mississippi River

    Abstract: Mississippi River shoaling and dredging processes in the vicinity of Head of Passes and in Southwest Pass were investigated. Existing rates of deposition and dredging were determined using near-daily eHydro bathymetric surveys, National Dredging Quality Management dredge operating data, and geospatial processing steps developed for this study. These surveys provide a means to characterize the highly dynamic and variable sedimentation patterns observed in the navigation channel. The HEC-6T one-dimensional numerical sedimentation model was used to evaluate possible modifications to the distribution of water and sediment in the Mississippi River near Head of Passes in an attempt to reduce shoaling in the navigation channel. The model was used to evaluate the effects of partial closures of several distributaries downstream from Venice and to evaluate the effects of channel widening and channel deepening adjacent to the Hopper Dredge Disposal Area at Head of Passes. In this study, various structural alternatives were compared to a base test that represented existing conditions. Sedimentation and dredging effects were projected 50 years into the future.
  • Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Study of Water and Sediment Movement through a Deep Scour Hole in the Lower Mississippi River

    Abstract: A series of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) transects were collected through a deep scour hole at the bend near River Mile 60 on the Lower Mississippi River. The measurements were collected during both a low and a high flow. The ADCP results show a 3D flow field through the deep bend. The backscatter intensity of the ADCP measurements indicates the majority of the sediment remains close to the inside of the bed and high in the water column, with minimal concentrations at the bottom of the bend. These findings have implications for numerical sediment transport models, which tend to deposit material at the bottom of deep scour holes like the one in this study
  • Soil-Moisture Estimation of Root Zone through Vegetation-Index-Based Evapotranspiration-Fraction and Soil-Properties (SERVES) User’s Manual Version 1.0

    Purpose: The purpose of this user’s guide is to provide background methods and implementation guidance on the Soil-moisture Estimation of Root Zone through Vegetation-Index-Based Evapotranspiration-Fraction and Soil-Properties (SERVES) model (Pradhan 2019).
  • Sustainable bank and channel stabilization techniques in arid southwest streams

    Abstract: Channel stabilization and enhancement approaches take many different forms and are implemented using varying construction methods, materials, and techniques. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of sustainable streambank stabilization measures that are typically applied in arid southwest (SW) streams. This study was conducted at the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Albuquerque District (SPA), and USACE Headquarters. The document also provides rationale for evaluating bank and bed stabilization measures.
  • Phase-Modulated Rice Model for Statistical Distributions of Complex Signals

    Abstract: The basic Rice model is commonly used to describe complex signal statistics from randomly scattered waves. It correctly describes weak (Born) scattering, as well as fully saturated scattering, and smoothly interpolates between these extremes. However, the basic Rice model is unsuitable for situations involving scattering by random inhomogeneities spanning a broad range of spatial scales, as commonly occurs for sound scattering by turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer and other scenarios. In such scenarios, the phase variations are often considerably stronger than those predicted by the basic Rice model. Therefore, the basic Rice model is extended to include a random modulation in the signal phase, which is attributable to the influence of the largest, most energetic inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. Various joint and marginal distributions for the complex signal statistics are derived to incorporate the phase-modulation effect. Approximations of the phase-modulated Rice model involving the Nakagami distribution for amplitude, and the wrapped normal and von Mises distributions for phase, are also developed and analyzed. The phase-modulated Rice model and various approximations are shown to greatly improve agreement with simulated data for sound propagation in the near-ground atmosphere.
  • Bridge Resource Inventory Database for Gap Emplacement Selection (BRIDGES)

    Abstract: Wet gap crossings are one of the most complex maneuvers undertaken by military engineers, who, along with engineer planners, require better tools to increase the capacity for efficient use of limited bridging resources across the battlespace. Planning for bridging maneuvers often involves a complicated and inefficient system of ad hoc spreadsheets combined with an overreliance on the personal experience and training of subject matter experts (SMEs). Bridge Resource Inventory Database for Gap Emplacement Selection (BRIDGES) uses interactive mapping and database technology in order to streamline the bridging planning process and provide answers to question about myriad scenarios to maximize efficiency and provide better means of data persistence across time and data sharing across operational or planning units.
  • Adverse Outcome Pathways for Engineered Systems

    Abstract: Companies and organizations around the world spend massive amounts of money each year to discover, predict, and remediate failures within engineered systems. These tasks require individuals with specialized knowledge in a variety of topics related to failure. This knowledge is often acquired through years of academic and on-the-job training centered around the review of scientific documentation such as books, reports, manuals, and peer-reviewed publications. The loss of this knowledge through employee attrition can be detrimental to a group as knowledge is often difficult to reacquire. The aggregation and representation of known failure mechanisms for engineered materials could aid in the sharing of knowledge, the acquisition of knowledge, and the discovery of failure causes, reducing the risk of failure. Thus, the current work proposes the Adverse Outcome Pathway for Engineered Systems (AOP-ES) framework, an extension of the Adverse Outcome Pathway used in toxicology. The AOP-ES is designed to document failure knowledge, enabling knowledge transfer and the prediction of failures of novel engineered materials based on the performance of similar materials. This paper introduces the AOP-ES framework and its key elements alongside the principles that govern the framework. An application of the framework is presented, and additional benefits are explored.
  • Testing Expedient Ground Anchor Solutions for Guyed Towers in Remote Cold Regions: Considerations for Cold Remote Regions with Limited Tools

    Abstract: Ground anchors connected to guy wires for tower structures in cold climates suffer from frost heaving, which causes loss of wire tension and subsequent structural instability. It is necessary to understand what ground anchors are available to resist this tendency yet are still capable of expedient installation in remote areas. To that end, three metal, traditional ground-anchor types (arrowhead, bullet, and penetrating auger) and one novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC) T-post anchor were evaluated in frozen gravels and frozen silts at a research facility in Fairbanks, Alaska. Criteria included installation capability, failure loading, and removal ability. Additionally, expedient installation techniques for use in field conditions were also demonstrated. All three traditional ground anchors failed to penetrate frozen gravels. The penetrating auger also failed to penetrate frozen silts, but the arrowhead and bullet anchors did penetrate frozen silts with difficulty. The PVC anchor is capable of being installed only in a predrilled pilot hole. Under flexural load, the arrowhead anchor cable failed at 3686.72 lb, and the bullet anchor cable failed at 1753.44 lb. The PVC slid out of its hole at a direct-pull force of 1978.24 lb and failed under flexural stress at 202.32 lb.