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  • AIS Data Case Study: Selecting Design Vessels for New Jersey Back Bays Storm Surge Barriers Study

    Abstract: The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering technical note (CHETN) is to describe how historic Automatic Identification System (AIS) vessel position data were used to identify a design vessel for use in a storm surge barrier design study. Specifically, this CHETN describes how the AIS data were accessed, how the universe of vessel data was refined to allow for design vessel selection, and how that selection was used in a storm surge barrier (SSB) study. This CHETN draws upon the New Jersey Back Bays Coastal Storm Risk Management Feasibility Study (USACE-NAP 2019), specifically the Appendix B.2 Engineering Appendix Civil document1. The New Jersey Back Bays Study itself builds upon the work of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) initiated after Hurricane Sandy in 2012 (USACE 2015a).
  • Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES): Materials and Testing

    Abstract: Complex military operations often result in U.S. forces remaining at deployed locations for long periods. In such cases, more sustainable facilities are required to better accommodate and protect forward-deployed forces. Current efforts to develop safer, more sustainable operating facilities for contingency bases involve construction activities that require a redesign of the types and characteristics of the structures constructed, that reduce the resources required to build, and that decrease the resources needed to operate and maintain the completed facilities. The Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) project was undertaken to develop the capability to “print” custom-designed expeditionary structures on demand, in the field, using locally available materials with the minimum number of personnel. This work investigated large-scale automated “additive construction” (i.e., 3D printing with concrete) for construction applications. This report, which documents ACES materials and testing, is one of four technical reports, each of which details a major area of the ACES research project, its research processes, and its associated results. There major areas include System Requirements, Construction, and Performance; Energy and Modeling; Materials and Testing; Architectural and Structural Analysis.
  • altWIZ: A System for Satellite Radar Altimeter Evaluation of Modeled Wave Heights

    Purpose: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes the design and implementation of a wave model evaluation system, altWIZ, which uses wave height observations from operational satellite radar altimeters. The altWIZ system utilizes two recently released altimeter databases: Ribal and Young (2019) and European Space Agency Sea State Climate Change Initiative v.1.1 level 2 (Dodet et al. 2020). The system facilitates model evaluation against 1 Hz1 altimeter data or a product created by averaging altimeter data in space and time around model grid points. The system allows, for the first time, quantitative analysis of spatial model errors within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Wave Information Study (WIS) 30+ year hindcast for coastal United States. The system is demonstrated on the WIS 2017 Atlantic hindcast, using a 1/2° basin scale grid and a 1/4° regional grid of the East Coast. Consistent spatial patterns of increased bias and root-mean-square-error are exposed. Seasonal strengthening and weakening of these spatial patterns are found, related to the seasonal variation of wave energy. Some model errors correspond to areas known for high currents, and thus wave-current interaction. In conjunction with the model comparison, additional functions for pairing altimeter measurements with buoy data and storm tracks have been built. Appendices give information on the code access (Appendix I), organization and files (Appendix II), example usage (Appendix III), and demonstrating options (Appendix IV).
  • Computational Investigation on Interactions between Some Munition Compounds and Humic Substances

    Note: This document was originally published as a journal article or conference proceeding. The link and document will be accessible after a 12-month embargo expires (December 14, 2021 for this document). For more information, see "Frequently Asked Questions on Public Access to Federally Funded Journal Articles" at https://discover.dtic.mil/pdfs/padf/DTIC_FAQs_Public_Access.pdf Abstract: Humic acid substances (HAs) in natural soil and sediment environments affect the retention and degradation of insensitive munition compounds and legacy high explosives (MCs): 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) DNi−NH4+, N-methyl-p-nitroaniline (nMNA), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO; neutral and anionic forms), 2,4,6-trinitroto-luene (TNT), and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX). A humic acid mode compound has been considered using molecular dynamics, thermodynamic integration, and density functional theory to characterize the munition binding ability, ionization potential, and electron affinity compared to that in the water solution. Humic acids bind most compounds and act as both a sink and source for electrons. Ionization potentials suggest that HAs are more susceptible to oxidation than the MCs studied. The electron affinity of HAs is very conformation-dependent and spans the same range as the munition compounds. When HAs and MCs are complexed, the HAs tend to radicalize first, thus buffering MCs against reductive as well as oxidative attacks.
  • guiBathy: A Graphical User Interface to Estimate Nearshore Bathymetry from Hovering Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Abstract: This US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, technical report details guiBathy, a graphical user interface to estimate nearshore bathymetry from imagery collected via a hovering Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). guiBathy provides an end-to-end solution for non-subject-matter-experts to utilize commercial-off-the-shelf UAS to collect quantitative imagery of the nearshore by packaging robust photogrammetric and signal-processing algorithms into an easy-to-use software interface. This report begins by providing brief background on coastal imaging and the photogrammetry and bathymetric inversion algorithms guiBathy utilizes, as well as UAS data collection requirements. The report then describes guiBathy software specifications, features, and workflow. Example guiBathy applications conclude the report with UAS bathymetry measurements taken during the 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season, which compare favorably (root mean square error = 0.44 to 0.72 m; bias = -0.35 to -0.11 m) with in situ survey measurements. guiBathy is a standalone executable software for Windows 10 platforms and will be freely available at www.github.com/erdc.
  • Comparison of Generic and Proprietary Aquatic Herbicides for Control of Invasive Vegetation : Part 2. Emergent Plants

    Abstract: Aquatic herbicides are one of the most effective and widespread ways to manage nuisance vegetation in the US After the active ingredient is selected, often there are numerous proprietary and generic branded products to select from. To date, limited efforts have been made to compare the efficacy of brand name and generic herbicides head to head; therefore, at tot al of 20 mesocosm trials were conducted to evaluate various 2,4 -D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr products against alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.), southern cattail (hereafter referred to as cattail, Typha domingensis Pers.), and creeping water primrose (hereafter referred as primrose, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven). All active ingredients were applied to foliage at broadcast rates commonly used in applications to public waters. Proprietary and generic 2,4 -D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr were efficacious and provided 39 to 99% control of alligatorweed, cattail and primrose in 19 of the 20 trials. There were no significant differences i n product performance except glyphosate vs. alligatorweed (trial 1, Rodeo vs. Roundup Custom) and glyphosate vs. cattail (trial 1, Rodeo vs. Glyphosate 5.4). These results demonstrate under small -scale conditions, the majority of the generic and proprietary herbicides provided similar control of emergent vegetation, regardless of active ingredient.
  • Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery Next Generation Backfill Technologies Comparison Experiment : Technology Comparison Experiment

    Abstract: The Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery (RADR) Next Generation Backfill Technology Comparison Experiment was conducted in July 2017 at the East Campus of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), located in Vicksburg, MS. The experiment evaluated three different crater backfill technologies to compare their performance and develop a technology trade-off analysis. The RADR next generation backfill technologies were compared to the current RADR standard backfill method of flowable fill. Results from this experiment provided useful information on technology rankings and trade-offs. This effort resulted in successful crater backfill solutions that were recommended for further end user evaluation.
  • Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES): Energy Modeling

    Abstract: The need to conduct complex operations over time results in U.S. forces remaining in deployed locations for long periods. In such cases, more sustainable facilities are required to better accommodate and protect forward deployed forces. Current efforts to develop safer, more sustainable operating facilities for contingency bases involve construction activities that redesign the types and characteristics of the structures constructed, reduce the resources required to build, and reduce resources needed to operate and maintain the completed facilities. The Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) project was undertaken to develop the capability to “print” custom-designed expeditionary structures on demand, in the field, using locally available materials with the minimum number of personnel. This work investigated large-scale automated “additive construction” (i.e., 3D printing with concrete) for construction applications. This document, which documents ACES energy and modeling, is one of four technical reports, each of which details a major area of the ACES research project, its research processes, and associated results, including: System Requirements, Construction, and Performance; Energy and Modeling; Materials and Testing; Architectural and Structural Analysis.
  • Estimating Bridge Reliability by Using Bayesian Networks

    Abstract: As part of an inspection, bridge inspectors assign condition ratings to the main components of a bridge’s structural system and identify any defects that they observe. Condition ratings are necessarily somewhat subjective, as they are influenced by the experience of the inspectors. In the current work, procedures were developed for making inferences on the reliability of reinforced concrete girders with defects at both the cross section and the girder level. The Bayesian network (BN) tools constructed in this work use simple structural mechanics to model the capacity of girders. By using expert elicitation, defects observed during inspection are correlated with underlying deterioration mechanisms. By linking these deterioration mechanisms with reductions in mechanical properties, inferences on the reliability of a bridge can be made based on visual observation of defects. With more development, this BN tool can be used to compare conditions of bridges relative to one another and aid in the prioritization of repairs. However, an extensive survey of bridges affected by deterioration mechanisms is needed to confidently establish valid relationships between deterioration severity and mechanical properties.
  • Environmental Applications of 3D Printing Polymer Composites for Dredging Operations

    Abstract: This Dredging Operations Environmental Research (DOER) technical note disseminates novel methods to monitor and reduce contaminant mobility and bioavailability in water, sediments, and soils. These method advancements are enabled by additive manufacturing (i.e., three-dimensional [3D] printing) to deploy and retrieve materials that adsorb contaminants that are traditionally applied as unbound powders. Examples of sorbents added as amendments for remediation of contaminated sediments include activated carbon, biochar, biopolymers, zeolite, and sand caps. Figure 1 provides examples of sorbent and photocatalytic particles successfully compounded and 3D printed using polylactic acid as a binder. Additional adsorptive materials may be applicable and photocatalytic materials (Friedmann et al. 2019) may be applied to degrade contaminants of concern into less hazardous forms. This technical note further describes opportunities for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project managers and the water and sediment resource management community to apply 3D printing of polymers containing adsorptive filler materials as a prototyping tool and as an on-site, on-demand manufacturing capability to remediate and monitor contaminants in the environment. This research was funded by DOER project 19-13, titled “3D Printed Design for Remediation and Monitoring of Dredged Material.”