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Archive: September, 2020
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Isarithmic mapping of radio-frequency noise in the urban environment

    Abstract: Radio-frequency (RF) background noise is a spatially-varying and critical parameter for predicting radio communication system and electromagnetic sensor performance in urban environments. Previous studies have measured urban RF noise at fixed, representative locations. The Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) has developed a tunable system for conducting mobile RF noise measurements in the VHF and UHF and shown that urban RF noise characteristics vary significantly and repeatably at a scale of tens of meters (Haedrich & Breton, 2019). CRREL also found high-powered regions in Boston, MA that are persistent over time. However, since previous studies conducted stationary measurements or measurements along linear transects, little is known about the 2-dimensional topography of urban noise and the spatial distribution and characteristics of these high-powered regions. In this paper, we present the results of a dense, block-grid survey of downtown Boston, MA at 142 and 246.5 MHz with measurements taken every meter along each street. We present isarithmic maps of median noise power and describe the spatial distribution, shape and other characteristics of the high-powered regions. We compare the rate of noise power decay around high-powered regions to losses predicted by a power law model of path loss.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Enhancing Army Energy Culture with Behavioral Approaches

    Abstract: Facility energy efficiency efforts too often underperform because of people’s choices and actions in their use of technology. Recognizing this challenge, Army energy guidance calls for establishing an informed energy-conscious culture of stewardship to meet mission resilience requirements. However, the details for implementing that guidance have not been established. This report provides two primary products to address these needs: (1) a Human-Centered Efficiency Process (HCEP), which is a coordinated nine-step process to use best practices in energy behavior, and (2) an outline of a strategy to build a culture of efficiency. The practical HCEP is synthesized from energy management, change management, and Army processes (After Action Report [AAR] and Commander’s Intent), as well as insights from federal personnel. It is built around an organizational framework and a continuous improvement process that systematically enables people to use technology effectively and efficiently. The culture strategy consists of a method of assessing the current status of the Army’s energy culture; a vision of a desired end state; and a path toward change.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Water Security Scenarios: Planning for Installation Water Disruptions

    Abstract: The Army’s critical missions are at risk from interruption of water supplies. Sufficient amounts of high- quality potable water are a resource without substitute. The Army’s Installation Energy and Water Security Policy establishes requirements for installations to sustain critical mission capabilities and to mitigate risks posed by energy and water disruptions that affect installations; this includes coordinating vulnerability and risk assessments of potential disruptions and implementing adequate responses to mitigate identified risks. Resilient installations will develop storage capacity to forestall water shortages and will also have short- and long-term plans to help the installation recover from events and forestall progressing to more severe deficits. This project supports compliance with the water security policy by exploring the range of conditions and responses possible across installations. Multiple scenarios were developed to explore how a 14-day interruption in water supply might affect an installation and to provide preliminary guidance to help installations develop strategies to address water disruptions to critical missions drawing from existing processes used in mission assurance. Researchers investigated types of installations and classes of scenarios most relevant to installation water security planning and explored several scenarios to provide a framework to helps installations advance their water resilience and security planning.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Seasonal Effects on Vehicle Mobility: High-Latitude Case Study

    Abstract: Seasonality plays a key role in altering the terrain of many military operating environments. Since seasonality has such a large impact on the terrain, it needs to be properly accounted for in vehicle dynamics models. This work outlines a variety of static and dynamic seasonal terrain conditions and their impacts on vehicle mobility in an austere region of Europe. Overall the vehicles performed the best in the dry season condition. The thaw season condition had the most drastic impact on mobility with all but the heavy tracked vehicle being almost completely NOGO in the region. Overall, the heavy tracked vehicle had the best performance in all terrain conditions. These results highlight the importance of incorporating seasonal impacts on terrain into NRMM or any vehicle dynamics model. Future work will focus on collecting more data to improve the empirical relationships between vehicles and seasonal terrain conditions, thereby allowing for more accurate speed predictions.