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Tag: aquatic plants
  • Wildrice (Zizania palustris; Manoomin) Biology, Functions and Values, and Soil Physiochemical Properties Affecting Production: A Review of Available Literature

    Abstract: Wildrice (Zizania palustris L.) is an annual aquatic emergent plant primarily distributed across portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Canada. Wildrice requires narrow environmental conditions that vary throughout its life cycle. Environmental conditions required include water levels between 15 and 90 cm, slow flowing water, anaerobic soil, and circum-neutral pH. Wildrice production and abundance is most often limited by nitrogen availability. Both short- and long-term changes in local conditions impact distribution and abundance of wildrice at local and regional scales. Reported declines in wildrice production have increased interest in evaluating changing environmental conditions, specifically within the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Wildrice, or manoomin, is an important food and cultural resource, and remains important to native peoples throughout the region, including the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. This report provides a review of literature related to wildrice and examines potential factors affecting its production in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This report highlights cultural and traditional values, functions and values of wildrice, and unique chemical and physical aspects of the environment where wildrice grow. Additionally, this report synthesizes the data gathered in the literature review, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides research opportunities for improved wildrice production in the Great Lakes region.
  • Dredged Material Can Benefit Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Habitats

    Purpose: This technical note (TN) was developed by the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center–Environmental Laboratory (ERDC-EL) to provide an overview of the ecosystem services delivered by submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) to estuarine and coastal ecosystems and to describe potential methods for the beneficial use of dredged material (BUDM) to aid in SAV restoration. Although dredging tends to have a negative association with SAV habitats, BUDM may provide an opportunity to expand suitable SAV habitat to areas where depth is the primary limiting factor. Recent in situ observations have shown that SAV has opportunistically colonized several dredged-material placement sites. This TN provides context on BUDM for SAV habitat restoration to encourage increased strategic placement.
  • Small Plot Applications of Florpyrauxifen –Benzyl (Procellacor SC™) for Control of Monoecious Hydrilla in Roanoke Rapids Lake, NC

    Abstract: Four demonstration plots were selected at Roanoke Rapids Lake, NC to evaluate water exchange and aqueous herbicide residues in stands of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) following treatment with rhodamine wt dye and florpyrauxifen-benzyl to control monecious hydrilla. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl (Procellacor™ SC) was applied in combination with Rhodamine WT (RWT) at two of the plots. Dye measurements and herbicide residue samples were collected at specific time intervals to draw comparisons between herbicide and RWT dye dissipation. The two additional plots served as reference plots to the treatment plots. Pre- and post-treatment vegetation surveys were conducted to evaluate monoecious hydrilla control and non-target species response. RWT dye and herbicide residue data indicated rapid water exchange was occurring with each treatment plot. As a result, florpyrauxifen-benzyl concentration and exposure times (CETs) towards monoecious hydrilla were not sufficient to achieve adequate control by 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). To reduce the impact of hydraulic complexity and improve herbicide efficacy, treatments should coincide with minimal reservoir discharge events to extend herbicide CET relationships. Evaluations of florpyrauxifen-benzyl on late season, mature plants may have impacted herbicide efficacy. Evaluations should be conducted earlier in the growing season, on young, actively growing plants, to discern potential differences in efficacy due to treatment timing and phenology. More information on herbicide concentration and exposure time relationships for monoecious hydrilla should be developed in growth chamber and mesocosm settings to improve species selective management of monoecious hydrilla in hydrodynamic reservoirs.
  • Flowering Rush Control in Hydrodynamic Systems: Part 1: Water Exchange Processes

    Abstract: In 2018, field trials evaluated water-exchange processes using rhodamine WT dye to provide guidance on the effective management of flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) at McNary Dam and Reservoir (Wallula Lake, 15,700 ha). Additional evaluations determined the effectiveness of BubbleTubing (hereafter referred to as bubble curtain) at reducing water exchange within potential flowering rush treatment areas. Dye readings were collected from multiple sampling points at specific time intervals until a dye half-life could be determined. Whole-plot dye half-lives at sites without bubble curtain ranged 0.56–6.7 h. In slower water-exchange sites (≥2.6 h dye half-life), the herbicide diquat should have a sufficient contact time to significantly reduce flowering rush aboveground biomass. Other sites demonstrated very rapid water exchange (<1.5 h dye half-life), likely too rapid to effectively control flowering rush using chemical treatments without the use of a barrier or curtain to slow water exchange. At one site, the use of the bubble curtain increased the dye half-life from 3.8 h with no curtain to 7.6 and 7.1 h with a bubble curtain. The bubble curtain’s ability to slow water exchange will provide improved chemical control and increase the potential for other chemical products to be effectively used.
  • Two Years of Post-Project Monitoring of a Navigation Solution in a Dynamic Coastal Environment, Smith Island, Maryland

    Abstract: In 2018, jetties and a sill were constructed by the US Army Corps of Engineers adjacent to the Sheep Pen Gut Federal Channel at Rhodes Point, Smith Island, Maryland. These navigation improvements were constructed under Section 107 of the Continuing Authorities Program. Material dredged for construction of the structures and realignment of the channel were used to restore degraded marsh. Following construction and dredging, 2 years of monitoring were performed to evaluate the performance of navigation improvements with respect to the prevention of shoaling within the channel, shoreline changes, and impacts to submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Technical Report ERDC/CHL TR-20-14 describes the first year of post-project monitoring and the methodologies employed. This report describes conclusions derived from 2 years of monitoring. While the navigation improvements are largely preventing the channel from infilling, shoaling within is occurring at rates higher than expected. The placement site appears stable and accreting landward; however, there continues to be erosion along the shoreline and through the gaps in the breakwaters. SAV monitoring indicates that SAV is not present in the project footprint, even though turbidity is comparable to the reference area. Physical disturbance of the bottom sediment during construction may explain SAV absence.
  • Phenology of Competitive Interactions and Implications for Management of the Invasive Wetland Plant Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Purpose: Phenological differences between invading plants and members of recipient communities may increase the success of invaders because of priority effects. Thus, the application of management when the invader has a phenological advantage (for example, early in the year) can benefit other species by increasing resource availability. This technical note summarizes results from a combination of field observations and a mesocosm experiment to explore whether phenological differences between the invasive wetland plant, alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides [Mart.] Grseb.), and resident species contribute to alligatorweed success. We documented over two years the early-season growth of alligatorweed and other species at 12 sites in Louisiana, USA. We then conducted a subsequent mesocosm competition experiment between alligatorweed and a common wetland emergent species, spotted lady’s thumb (Persicaria maculosa [L.] Small), over a full year to detect differences in timing of growth and competitive interactions under two fertilizer levels.
  • Environmental Factors Affecting Coastal and Estuarine Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV)

    Abstract: Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) growing in estuarine and coastal marine systems provides crucial ecosystem functions ranging from sediment stabilization to habitat and food for specific species. SAV systems, however, are sensitive to a number of environmental factors, both anthropogenic and natural. The most common limiting factors are light limitation, water quality, and salinity, as reported widely across the literature. These factors are controlled by a number of complex processes, however, varying greatly between systems and SAV populations. This report seeks to conduct an exhaustive examination of factors influencing estuarine and coastal marine SAV habitats and find the common threads that tie these ecosystems together. Studies relating SAV habitats in the United States to a variety of factors are reviewed here, including geomorphological and bathymetric characteristics, sediment dynamics, sedimentological characteristics, and water quality, as well as hydrologic regime and weather. Tools and methods used to assess each of these important factors are also reviewed. A better understanding of fundamental environmental factors that control SAV growth will provide crucial information for coastal restoration and engineering project planning in areas populated by SAVs.
  • Vegetation Community Changes in Response to Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Abstract: Management of invasive phragmites (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Trin. Ex Steud.) in the United States has proven challenging over the last several decades. Various methods for control exist, but integrated approaches appear to have the most success. However, documentation of vegetation community–wide responses to these approaches remains limited. This study monitored plant community changes at Times Beach, New York, over a five-year period. In concert with mowing and thatch removal in all areas, the study evaluated two herbicides separately and together, representing three experimental treatment areas (TAs), for control efficacy by measuring plant community structure. Phragmites was targeted for treatments, avoiding native and nonproblematic non-native species when possible, to preserve beneficial habitat during phragmites control efforts. Monitoring results showed significant drops in phragmites relative cover, relative frequency, and importance values due to integrated management, regardless of herbicide treatment, with corresponding increases in these same values for native and other plant species. This suggests that prudent removal of phragmites is compatible with beneficial plant restorative efforts to maintain and improve habitat in infested areas.
  • Efficacy of Florpyrauxifen-benzyl for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control and Nontarget Illinois Pondweed, Elodea, and Coontail Response

    Purpose: This research evaluated low concentrations and short exposure times of the recently registered aquatic herbicide florpyrauxifen-benzyl (4-amino-3-chloro-6-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-fluoro-pyridine-2-benzyl ester) on the target plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L., hereafter referred to as EWM) as well as selectivity towards the nontarget submersed species Illinois pondweed (Potamogeton illinoensis Morong), elodea (Elodea canadensis Michx.), and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.)
  • Efficacy of Florpyrauxifen-benzyl on Dioecious Hydrilla and Hybrid Water Milfoil - Concentration and Exposure Time Requirements

    Abstract: This study conducted small-scale trials under various concentration and exposure time (CET) scenarios to determine florpyrauxifen-benzyl activity on dioecious hydrilla and hybrid watermilfoil and determine impact on water stargrass and elodea. Hydrilla treated with 12, 24, or 36 μg active ingredient (a.i.) L⁻¹ florpyrauxifen-benzyl and exposed for 12, 24, or 48 hr under outdoor mesocosm conditions was reduced in biomass by 30-75% at 8 weeks after treatment (WAT). An additional hydrilla trial at the same herbicide concentrations, but under longer exposures (24, 72, or 168 hr), resulted in 33–85% plant control. Under indoor conditions, hybrid watermilfoil dry weight decreased 98–100% with subsurface applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl under CET scenarios of 3–12 μg a.i. L⁻¹ at 3–24 hr exposure times in a growth chamber trial. Under shorter exposure periods (0.5–4 hr) in a follow-up trial, low doses (3–9 μg a.i. L⁻¹) achieved 50–100% control of hybrid watermilfoil. In the same trial, the nontarget species water stargrass and elodea proved relatively tolerant to the florpyrauxifen-benzyl at doses up to 6 μg a.i. L⁻¹ (4 hr exposure) and 9 μg a.i. L⁻¹ (1 hr exposure). These small-scale trials demonstrate florpyrauxifen-benzyl’s potential to selectively manage invasive species.