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Tag: aquatic plants
  • Comparison of Generic and Proprietary Aquatic Herbicides for Control of Invasive Vegetation; Part 3: Submersed Plants

    Abstract: Herbicide selection is key to efficiently managing nuisance vegetation in our nation’s waterways. After selecting the active ingredient, there still remains multiple proprietary and generic products to choose from. Recent small-scale research has been conducted to compare the efficacy of these herbicides against floating and emergent species. Therefore, a series of mesocosm and growth chamber trials were conducted to evaluate subsurface applications of the following herbicides against submersed plants: diquat versus coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle), southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis (Sprengel) Magnus), and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.); flumioxazin versus coontail, hydrilla, and Eurasian watermilfoil; and triclopyr against Eurasian watermilfoil. All active ingredients were applied at concentrations commonly used to manage these species in public waters. Visually, all herbicides within a particular active ingredient performed similarly with regard to the onset and severity of injury symptoms throughout the trials. All trials, except diquat versus Eurasian watermilfoil, resulted in no differences in efficacy among the 14 proprietary and generic herbicides tested, and all herbicides provided 43%–100% control, regardless of active ingredient and trial. Under mesocosm and growth chamber conditions, the majority of the generic and proprietary herbicides evaluated against submersed plants provided similar control.
  • Evaluation of light limitation and depth on germinated seeds of two species of water chestnut cultured under experimental conditions

    Abstract: This technical note describes the results of a mesocosm experiment to determine the light and depth limitations of growth chamber germinated seeds of two species of water chestnut (Trapa spp.) naturalized in the northeastern United States.
  • Comparison of Generic and Proprietary Aquatic Herbicides for Control of Invasive Vegetation : Part 2. Emergent Plants

    Abstract: Aquatic herbicides are one of the most effective and widespread ways to manage nuisance vegetation in the US After the active ingredient is selected, often there are numerous proprietary and generic branded products to select from. To date, limited efforts have been made to compare the efficacy of brand name and generic herbicides head to head; therefore, at tot al of 20 mesocosm trials were conducted to evaluate various 2,4 -D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr products against alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.), southern cattail (hereafter referred to as cattail, Typha domingensis Pers.), and creeping water primrose (hereafter referred as primrose, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven). All active ingredients were applied to foliage at broadcast rates commonly used in applications to public waters. Proprietary and generic 2,4 -D, glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr were efficacious and provided 39 to 99% control of alligatorweed, cattail and primrose in 19 of the 20 trials. There were no significant differences i n product performance except glyphosate vs. alligatorweed (trial 1, Rodeo vs. Roundup Custom) and glyphosate vs. cattail (trial 1, Rodeo vs. Glyphosate 5.4). These results demonstrate under small -scale conditions, the majority of the generic and proprietary herbicides provided similar control of emergent vegetation, regardless of active ingredient.
  • Evaluation of New Endothall and Florpyrauxifen-benzyl Use Patterns for Controlling Crested Floating Heart and Giant Salvinia

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to (1) evaluate concentration exposure time (CET) relationships for florpyrauxifen-benzyl (ProcellaCOR) for control of the floating leaved plant crested floating heart (Nymphoides cristata, CFH) and (2) evaluate foliar applications of endothall (Aquathol K) for control of CFH and the floating fern giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta).
  • Aligning Research and Management Priorities for Nitellopsis obtusa (Starry Stonewort)

    Abstract: In 2018, the US Army Corps of Engineers and Washington and Waukesha Counties in Wisconsin hosted a workshop on the invasive macroalga starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa). Leading water resource managers (agencies and commercial applicators), researchers, regulators, and other interested parties discussed issues surrounding starry stonewort invasions in the Great Lakes Region (GLR). Technical sessions presented information on current research, invasion monitoring, early detection, rapid-response efforts, and operational management activities. Research summaries included invasion in Lake Ontario, prediction of invasion risk in Minnesota and Wisconsin using water chemistry data, and bulbil efficacy and distribution modeling in New England. In addition, the workshop offered summaries of attempted chemical and mechanical control tactics. Following presentations on previous studies, workshop participants identified research and management priorities. Critical research gaps identified from this workshop include (a) better understanding of the biology, invasion ecology, and management of starry stonewort; a greater understanding of distribution and movement, especially in the Great Lakes basin; enhanced population monitoring, applied research, and management strategies; and increased technical cooperation across government, academia, industry, and nonprofit organizations. Conclusions from this meeting will help prioritize future efforts focused on the adaptive management of starry stonewort in the United States and Canada.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Post-Project Monitoring of a Navigation Solution in a Dynamic Coastal Environment, Smith Island, Maryland: Year One of Post-Project Monitoring

    Abstract: In 2018, jetties and a sill were constructed by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) adjacent to the Sheep Pen Gut Federal Channel at Rhodes Point, Smith Island, Maryland. These navigation improvements were constructed under Section 107 of the Continuing Authorities Program. Material dredged for construction of the navigation structures and realignment of the channel were used to restore degraded marsh. Following construction and dredging, 1 year of post-project monitoring was performed to evaluate the performance of navigation improvements with respect to the prevention of shoaling within the Sheep Pen Gut channel, shoreline changes, and impacts to submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Given the short period of record after the completion of the navigation improvements, it was difficult to draw conclusions regarding stability of the channel, structures, and shoreline. Therefore, this report documents methodology and baseline conditions for monitoring, except for SAV, which was found to be potentially impacted by construction. A second year of monitoring was funded by the USACE Regional Sediment Management Program for fiscal year 2020. Findings can be used to inform plan formulation and design for USACE navigation projects by illuminating considerations for placement of structures to prevent shoaling and by informing SAV management decisions.