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Tag: storms
  • Total Water Level Controls on the Trajectory of Dune Toe Retreat

    Abstract: This study examines the trajectory (slope) of coastal foredune toe retreat in response to nine storm events that impacted the Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. High resolution, three-dimensional, repeat mobile terrestrial lidar observations over a four kilometer stretch of coast were used to assess spatiotemporal beach and dune evolution at the storm timescale. Consistent with existing field observations from other sandy coastlines, an upward toe retreat was observed for most instances of dune retreat in the Outer Banks. However, these new topographic data indicate that the retreat can proceed steeply downward when the maximum total water level (TWL) defined by the 2% runup exceedance level is not high enough, for long enough, to erode the dune face. Non-linear relationships were found between the dune toe retreat trajectory as well as both the magnitude and duration of TWL above the dune toe, where instances of upward- and downward-directed retreat are best differentiated using the 7% runup exceedance level, rather than the commonly used 2% level. This physically justified non-linear relationship is shown to be consistent with observations from other studies, and could be a more effective parameterization for the retreat trajectory than those currently implemented in wave-impact dune erosion models.
  • Stormwater Management Practices, Monitoring, and Maintenance Plan for US Army Garrison at West Point, NY

    Abstract: Structural stormwater management practices (SMPs) are designed and installed with the goal of reducing runoff and improving water quality through a variety of built (e.g., underground chamber and filter systems), nature-based and natural features (e.g., rain gardens, swales). In compliance with Section 402 of the US Clean Water Act (CWA), US Army Garrisons at West Point MS4 operators are required to obtain a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit or a New York State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES). These permits require development of stormwater management plans to reduce pollutants to meet the appropriate water quality standards. Over 62 structural SMPs have been installed at the US Army Garrison (USAG) to meet permit requirements. Monitoring and maintenance are essential to maintain and understand the effectiveness of these structures, track their maintenance needs, and improve their function. This document provides guidance for conducting stormwater management practice, inspection, and maintenance at the United States Army Garrison at West Point. The objectives are to inform installation managers on general SMP functions and designs, highlight key maintenance triggers affecting SMP functionality, and provide guidance on when and how to conduct inspections and maintenance actions specific to USAG SMPs and in accordance to NYS DEC.
  • A Large-Scale Community Storm Processes Field Experiment: The During Nearshore Event Experiment (DUNEX) Overview Reference Report

    Abstract: The DUring Nearshore Event EXperiment (DUNEX) was a series of large-scale nearshore coastal field experiments focused on during-storm, nearshore coastal processes. The experiments were conducted on the North Carolina coast by a multidisciplinary group of over 30 research scientists from 2019 to 2021. The overarching goal of DUNEX was to collaboratively gather information to improve understanding of the interactions of coastal water levels, waves, and flows, beach and dune evolution, soil behavior, vegetation, and groundwater during major coastal storms that affect infrastructure, habitats, and communities. In the short term, these high-quality field measurements will lead to better understanding of during-storm processes, impacts and post-storm recovery and will enhance US academic coastal research programs. Longer-term, DUNEX data and outcomes will improve understanding and prediction of extreme event physical processes and impacts, validate coastal processes numerical models, and improve coastal resilience strategies and communication methods for coastal communities impacted by storms. This report focuses on the planning and preparation required to conduct a large-scale field experiment, the collaboration amongst researchers, and lessons learned. The value of a large-scale experiment focused on storm processes and impacts begins with the scientific gains from the data collected, which will be available and used for decades to come.
  • Expert Elicitation Workshop for Planning Wetland and Reef Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) Futures

    Abstract: This special report discusses the outcomes of a September 2019 workshop intended to identify barriers to the consideration and implementation of natural and nature-based features (NNBF) in US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) civil works projects. A total of 23 participants representing seven USACE districts, the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), and the University of California–Santa Cruz met at USACE’s South Atlantic Division Headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, to discuss how to facilitate the implementation of NNBF into USACE project planning for wetlands and reefs using six categories: (1) site characterization, (2) engineering and design analysis, (3) life-cycle analysis, (4) economic analysis, (5) construction analysis, (6) and operation and maintenance (and monitoring). The workshop identified seven future directions in wetland and reef NNBF research and development: • Synthesize existing literature and analysis of existing projects to better define failure modes. • Determine trigger points that lead to loss of feature function. • Identify performance factors with respect to coastal storm risk management (CSRM) performance as well as ecological performance. • Focus additional research into cobenefits of NNBF. • Quantify the economic life-cycle costs of a project. • Improve technology transfer with regards to NNBF research and topics.
  • Coastal Texas Protection and Restoration Feasibility Study: Coastal Texas Flood Risk Assessment: Hydrodynamic Response and Beach Morphology

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers, Galveston District, is executing the Coastal Texas Protection and Restoration Feasibility Study coastal storm risk management (CSRM) project for the region. The project is currently in the feasibility phase. The primary goal is to develop CSRM measures that maximize national net economic development benefits. This report documents the coastal storm water level and wave hazard, including sea level rise, for a variety of flood risk management alternatives. Four beach restoration alternatives for Galveston Island and Bolivar peninsula were evaluated. Suites of synthetic tropical and historical non-tropical storms were developed and modeled. The CSTORM coupled surge-and-wave modeling system was used to accurately characterize storm circulation, water level, and wave hazards using new model meshes developed from high-resolution land and sub-aqueous surveys for with- and without-project scenarios. Beach morphology stochastic response was modeled with a Monte Carlo life-cycle simulation approach using the CSHORE morphological evolution numerical model embedded in the StormSim stochastic modeling system. Morphological and hydrodynamic response were primarily characterized with probability distributions of the number of rehabilitations and overflow.
  • Stormwater Management and Optimization Toolbox

    Abstract: As stormwater regulations for hydrologic and water quality control become increasingly stringent, Department of Defense (DoD) facilities are faced with the daunting task of complying with multiple laws and regulations. This often requires facilities to plan, design, and implement structural best management practices (BMPs) to capture, filter, and/or infiltrate runoff—requirements that can be complicated, contradictory, and difficult to plan. This project demonstrated the Stormwater Management Optimization Toolbox (SMOT), a spreadsheet-based tool that effectively analyzes and plans for compliance to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 pre-hydrologic conditions through BMP implementation, resulting in potential cost savings by reducing BMP sizes while simultaneously achieving compliance with multiple objectives. SMOT identifies the most cost-effective modeling method based on an installation’s local conditions (soils, rainfall patterns, drainage network, and regulatory requirements). The work first demonstrated that the Model Selection Tool (MST) recommendation accurately results in the minimum BMP cost for 45 facilities of widely varying climatic and regional conditions, and then demonstrated SMOT at two facilities.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Alabama Barrier Island Restoration Assessment Life-Cycle Structure Response Modeling

    Abstract: Dauphin Island, a barrier island off the coast of Alabama, plays an important role in the protection of the state’s coastal natural resources. In 2011, the State of Alabama constructed a rubble mound berm across a 2 km breach in the western end of the barrier island to prevent oil from the Deep Water Horizon oil spill from migrating into the Mississippi Sound. The breach, referred to as the Katrina Cut, was caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The US Army Corps of Engineers and the US Geological Survey (USGS) performed the Alabama Barrier Island Restoration Assessment study to assess the current and future function of Dauphin Island and evaluate potential restoration measures. A Monte Carlo life-cycle structure response assessment of the Katrina Cut rubble mound structure was performed as part of this study by the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory. Damage, wave transmission, and reliability were computed within the context of the decadal barrier evolution analysis performed by the USGS for various storminess and relative sea level change scenarios. The presence of a beach in front of the structure plays an important role in its protection. The breaching potential for measures was evaluated.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: SPDAT Rainfall and Streamflow Analysis at Mobile, Alabama

    ABSTRACT: This Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER) program technical note (TN) seeks to explain how the Storm and Precipitation Dredging Analysis Tool (SPDAT) can be used to determine dredging response to varying rainfall levels at a given site. This TN will focus on the historical dredging records in the Mobile Bay Ship Channel and rainfall levels in that area. The analysis presented in this TN will form the basis for how the tool methodology can be used to and compare rainfall and dredging records to determine response trends at other sites. The results from the tool analysis can inform dredging managers about how much dredging may be expected under similar rainfall or tropical storm conditions for future cycles.