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Tag: Hydraulic Models
  • Numerical Modeling of Supercritical Flow in the Los Angeles River: Part I: Adaptive Hydraulics Numerical Modeling of the 1943 Physical Model

    Abstract: The Los Angeles District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is assisting the City of Los Angeles with restoration efforts on the Los Angeles River. The city wishes to restore portions of the channelized river to a more natural state with riparian/vegetative green spaces for both wildlife and public recreation usage. The Los Angeles River provides an important role for the City of Los Angeles from a flood-control perspective, and functionality needs to be preserved when contemplating system modifications. This report details the development of an Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) numerical model capable of representing this complex system consisting of both subcritical and supercritical flow regimes. Due to limited hydraulic data in the study area, an extensive model validation to observed data was not possible. To bridge the data gap, a numerical model was developed from a previously completed physical model study with extensive quantitative measurements and qualitative reports of hydraulic conditions. This approach allowed engineers to evaluate the effectiveness of the AdH model in representing this complex hydraulic system along with determining the best methodology to accurately represent the existing conditions. This study determined appropriate model parameters that will be utilized in further numerical modeling efforts to evaluate system modifications associated with restoration efforts.
  • Numerical Analysis of Dike Effects on the Mississippi River Using a Two-Dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics Model (AdH)

    Abstract: This report describes the hydraulic effects of dikes on water surface elevation (WSE) and velocities in the Mississippi River near Vicksburg, MS, from Interstate 20 to Highway 80 using a previously calibrated 2D Adaptive Hydraulics numerical model. Dike heights and their associated hydraulic roughness values were varied to quantify the overall effects of adjustments to dike fields. Steady flows characterized as low, medium, and high conditions were simulated. The WSE and velocity difference plots were generated to illustrate the hydraulic effects on the river under all scenarios discussed above. Overall, the dike adjustments had negligible impacts on WSEs and showed minimal effects on velocities on a system wide scale.
  • Foundational Principles in the Development of AdH-SW3, the Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Hydrodynamics and Transport Module within the Adaptive Hydraulics/Hydrology Model

    Abstract: This report details the design and development of the three-dimensional shallow water hydrodynamics formulation within the Adaptive Hydraulics/Hydrology model (AdH-SW3) for simulation of flow and transport in rivers, estuaries, reservoirs, and other similar hydrologic environments. The report is intended to communicate principles of the model design for the interested and diligent user. The design relies upon several layers of consistency to produce a stable, accurate, and conservative model. The mesh design can handle rapid changes in bathymetry (e.g., steep-sided navigation channels in estuaries) and maintain accuracy in density-driven transport phenomena (e.g., thermal, or saline stratification and intrusion of salinity).
  • Low-Sill Control Structure Gate Load Study

    Abstract: The effort performed here describes the process to determine the gate lifting loads at the Low-Sill Control Structure. To measure the gate loads, a 1:55 Froude-scaled model of the Low-Sill Control Structure was tested. Load cells were placed on 3 of the 11 gates. Tests evaluated the gate loads for various hydraulic heads across the structure. A total of 109 tests were conducted for 14 flows with each flow having two gate settings provided by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District. The load data illustrated the potential for higher gate lifting loads (GLL) to occur at the mid-range gate opening (Go) for Gates 3 and 6. While for Gate 10, the highest GLL (452 kips, maximum load in testing) was at a Go = 4.2 ft. Conversely, for the low-flow bays, the highest load occurred at Go = 24.86 ft.
  • Wabash and Ohio River Confluence Hydraulic and Sediment Transport Model Investigation: A Report for US Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District

    Abstract: Avulsions of the Wabash River in 2008 through 2011 at its confluence with the Ohio River resulted in significant shoaling in the Ohio River. This caused a re-alignment of the navigation channel and the need for frequent dredging. A two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model, Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH), was developed to simulate base (existing) conditions and then altered to simulate multiple alternative scenarios to address these sediment issues. The study was conducted in two phases, Phase 1 in 2013 – 2015 and Phase 2 in 2018 – 2020. Field data were collected and consisted of multi-beam bathymetric elevations, bed sediment samples, suspended sediment samples, and discharge and velocity measurements. The model hydrodynamic and sediment transport computations adequately replicated the water surface slope, flow splits, bed sediment gradations, and suspended sediment concentrations when compared with field data. Thus, it was shown to be dependable as a predictive tool. The alternative that produced the most desirable results included a combination of three level-crested emergent dikes on Wabash Island and four submerged dikes on the Illinois shore with a level crest from the bank to the tip of the dike. The selected alternative produced an improved sailing line while maintaining authorized channel depths.
  • Effects of Geologic Outcrops on Long-Term Geomorphic Trends: New Madrid, MO, to Hickman, KY

    Abstract: The Mississippi River between New Madrid, MO, and Hickman, KY, is of particular interest because of divergent trends in water surface profiles at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. This report documents the investigation of the bathymetry, geology, and hydraulics of this segment of the river. The report shows that the area near River Mile 901 above Head of Passes strongly affects the river stages at low flows. This part of the river can experience high shear stresses when flows fall below 200,000 cfs, as opposed to most other locations where shear stress increases with flow. One-dimensional hydraulic modeling was also used to demonstrate that an increase of depth at a single scour hole, such as the one downstream from Hickman near River Mile 925, is unlikely to cause reach-wide degradation.
  • Rough River Outlet Works Physical Model Study

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, requested the support and assistance of the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL), in the evaluation of the hydraulic performance of the replacement Outlet Works for Rough River Dam. To support the design effort, CHL constructed a 1:25.85 scale physical model. The proposed features of the model in the domain are the curved approach channel, intake structure, transition, curved conduit, stilling basin, concrete apron, and retreat channel. Tests performed to evaluate the hydraulic performance illuminated a few design concerns. To address these issues, several key design changes were made. These included the retreat channel slope, end sill design, and transition design.
  • Red River Structure Physical Model Study: Bulkhead Testing

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District, and its non-federal sponsors are designing and constructing a flood risk management project that will reduce the risk of flooding in the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. There is a 30-mile long diversion channel around the west side of the city of Fargo, as well as a staging area that will be formed upstream of a 20-mile long dam (referred to as the Southern Embankment) that collectively includes an earthen embankment with three gated structures: the Diversion Inlet Structure, the Wild Rice River Structure, and the Red River Structure (RRS). A physical model has been constructed and analyzed to assess the hydraulic conditions near and at the RRS for verification of the structure’s flow capacity as well as optimization of design features for the structure. This report describes the modeling techniques and instrumentation used in the investigation and details the evaluation of the forces exerted on the proposed bulkheads during emergency operations for the RRS.
  • Hydraulic Dike Effects Investigation on the Mississippi River: Natchez to Baton Rouge

    Abstract: This report documents an investigation of the hydraulic effects of dikes on water levels in the Mississippi River between Natchez, MS, and Baton Rouge, LA, conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mississippi Valley Division, Vicksburg, MS. The investigation was conducted using a previously calibrated Natchez-to-Baton Rouge Adaptive Hydraulics numerical model. The objectives were to alter roughness and height variables associated with the dikes and overbanks encompassed in the numerical model and evaluate their effects on water surface elevations. Steady flow simulations were simulated for 12 May 2011 to investigate the variation in model results during the peak of the 2011 flood on the Mississippi River.
  • Red River Structure Physical Model Study

    Abstract: A proposed Red River Structure (RRS), intended to function as one of three gated structures comprising the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Area Flood Risk Management Project, was tested in a general physical model. A 1:40 Froude-scale was applied to model the structure, engineered channels, existing bathymetry/topography in the Red River and overbank areas, and the proposed Southern Embankment. The physical model was used to ensure that the RRS could pass at least 104,300 cfs during the Probable Maximum Flood while maintaining a maximum pool water surface elevation of 923.5 ft. The physical model was also utilized to optimize the approach structure, stilling basin, retaining walls, and erosion protection designs. The physical modeling effort resulted in an optimized stilling basin wall, retaining wall, and end sill geometry/configuration where erosive conditions were not observed outside and adjacent to the stilling basin. Properly designed riprap (St. Paul District’s R470 gradation) proved to be successful in protecting the proposed RRS from potential scour downstream. The modified approach wall design proved to be successful in creating safe approach flow conditions as well as acceptable flow separation patterns. It is recommended that Alternative 3 be the design used going forward.