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Tag: Computer simulation
  • In Situ and Time

    Abstract: Large-scale HPC simulations with their inherent I/O bottleneck have made in situ visualization an essential approach for data analysis, although the idea of in situ visualization dates back to the era of coprocessing in the 1990s. In situ coupling of analysis and visualization to a live simulation circumvents writing raw data to disk for post-mortem analysis -- an approach that is already inefficient for today's very large simulation codes. Instead, with in situ visualization, data abstracts are generated that provide a much higher level of expressiveness per byte. Therefore, more details can be computed and stored for later analysis, providing more insight than traditional methods. This workshop encouraged talks on methods and workflows that have been used for large-scale parallel visualization, with a particular focus on the in situ case.
  • Development of a Three-Dimensional Vegetative Loss Mechanism for the Geophysical Scale Transport Multi-Block Hydrodynamic Sediment and Water Quality Transport Modeling System (GSMB)

    PURPOSE: The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center’s (ERDC) Environmental Laboratory (EL) and Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) have completed several large scale hydrodynamic, sediment and water quality transport studies. These studies have been successfully executed utilizing the Geophysical Scale Transport Modeling System (GSMB), which is composed of multiple process models (Figure 1). Due to being directly and indirectly linked within the GSMB framework, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) accepted wave, hydrodynamic, sediment, and water quality transport models are both directly and indirectly linked within the GSMB framework.
  • Simulating Environmental Conditions for Southwest United States Convective Dust Storms Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model v4.1

    Abstract: Dust aerosols can pose a significant detriment to public health, transportation, and tactical operations through reductions in air quality and visibility. Thus, accurate model forecasts of dust emission and transport are essential to decision makers. While a large number of studies have advanced the understanding and predictability of dust storms, the majority of existing literature considers dust production and forcing conditions of the underlying meteorology independently of each other. Our study works towards filling this research gap by inventorying dust-event case studies forced by convective activity in the Desert Southwest United States, simulating select representative case studies using several configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, testing the sensitivity of forecasts to essential model parameters, and assessing overall forecast skill using variables essential to dust production and transport. We found our control configuration captured the initiation, evolution, and storm structure of a variety of convective features admirably well. Peak wind speeds were well represented, but we found that simulated events arrived up to 2 hours earlier or later than observed. Our results show that convective storms are highly sensitive to initialization time and initial conditions that can preemptively dry the atmosphere and suppress the growth of convective storms.
  • Development of a Two-Dimensional HEC-RAS Sediment Model for the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, for Software Development and Sediment Trend Analysis

    Abstract: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regional Sediment Management technical note (RSM-TN) describes an RSM effort that converted a one-dimensional (1D) sediment transport model of the Chippewa River confluence with the Mississippi River into a two-dimensional (2D) model. This work leveraged recent sediment data collection and tested the new 2D sediment transport capabilities in the Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Version 6.0. In addition to the benefits of software testing, the resulting model developed through this effort can provide more accurate spatial and temporal information about sedimentation in the Mississippi River navigation channel and help inform future dredging strategies for the St. Paul District, USACE.
  • Foundational Principles in the Development of AdH-SW3, the Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Hydrodynamics and Transport Module within the Adaptive Hydraulics/Hydrology Model

    Abstract: This report details the design and development of the three-dimensional shallow water hydrodynamics formulation within the Adaptive Hydraulics/Hydrology model (AdH-SW3) for simulation of flow and transport in rivers, estuaries, reservoirs, and other similar hydrologic environments. The report is intended to communicate principles of the model design for the interested and diligent user. The design relies upon several layers of consistency to produce a stable, accurate, and conservative model. The mesh design can handle rapid changes in bathymetry (e.g., steep-sided navigation channels in estuaries) and maintain accuracy in density-driven transport phenomena (e.g., thermal, or saline stratification and intrusion of salinity).
  • Implementation of an Albedo-Based Drag Partition into the WRF-Chem v4.1 AFWA Dust Emission Module

    ABSTRACT: Employing numerical prediction models can be a powerful tool for fore-casting air quality and visibility hazards related to dust events. However, these numerical models are sensitive to surface conditions. Roughness features (e.g., rocks, vegetation, furrows, etc.) that shelter or attenuate wind flow over the soil surface affect the magnitude and spatial distribution of dust emission. To aide in simulating the emission phase of dust transport, we used a previously published albedo-based drag partition parameterization to better represent the component of wind friction speed affecting the immediate soil surface. This report serves as a guide for integrating this parameterization into the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. We include the procedure for preprocessing the required input data, as well as the code modifications for the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) dust emission module. In addition, we provide an example demonstration of output data from a simulation of a dust event that occurred in the Southwestern United States, which incorporates use of the drag partition.
  • Development of Three-Dimensional Wetting and Drying Algorithm for the Geophysical Scale Transport Multi-Block Hydrodynamic Sediment and Water Quality Transport Modeling System (GSMB)

    Introduction: The Environmental Laboratory (EL) and the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) have jointly completed a number of large-scale hydrodynamic, sediment and water quality transport studies. EL and CHL have successfully executed these studies utilizing the Geophysical Scale Transport Modeling System (GSMB). The model framework of GSMB is composed of multiple process models as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) accepted wave, hydrodynamic, sediment and water quality transport models are directly and indirectly linked within the GSMB framework. The components of GSMB are the two-dimensional (2D) deep-water wave action model (WAM) (Komen et al. 1994, Jensen et al. 2012), data from meteorological model (MET) (e.g., Saha et al. 2010, shallow water wave models (STWAVE) (Smith et al. 1999), Coastal Modeling System wave (CMS-WAVE) (Lin et al. 2008), the large-scale, unstructured two-dimensional Advanced Circulation (2D ADCIRC) hydrodynamic model (, and the regional scale models, Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in three dimensions-Multi-Block (CH3D-MB) (Luong and Chapman 2009), which is the multi-block (MB) version of Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in three-dimensions-Waterways Experiments Station (CH3D-WES) (Chapman et al. 1996, Chapman et al. 2009), MB CH3D-SEDZLJ sediment transport model (Hayter et al. 2012), and CE-QUAL Management - ICM water quality model (Bunch et al. 2003, Cerco and Cole 1994). Task 1 of the DOER project, “Modeling Transport in Wetting/Drying and Vegetated Regions,” is to implement and test three-dimensional (3D) wetting and drying (W/D) within GSMB. This technical note describes the methods and results of Task 1. The original W/D routines were restricted to a single vertical layer or depth-averaged simulations. In order to retain the required 3D or multi-layer capability of MB-CH3D, a multi-block version with variable block layers was developed (Chapman and Luong 2009). This approach requires a combination of grid decomposition, MB, and Message Passing Interface (MPI) communication (Snir et al. 1998). The MB single layer W/D has demonstrated itself as an effective tool in hyper-tide environments, such as Cook Inlet, Alaska (Hayter et al. 2012). The code modifications, implementation, and testing of a fully 3D W/D are described in the following sections of this technical note.
  • The AFWA Dust Emission Scheme for the GOCART Aerosol Model in WRF-Chem v3.8.1

    Abstract: Airborne particles of mineral dust play a key role in Earth’s climate system and affect human activities around the globe. The numerical weather modeling community has undertaken considerable efforts to accurately forecast these dust emissions. Here, for the first time in the literature, we thoroughly describe and document the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) dust emission scheme for the Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosol model within the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and compare it to the other dust emission schemes available in WRF-Chem. The AFWA dust emission scheme addresses some shortcomings experienced by the earlier GOCART-WRF scheme. Improved model physics are designed to better handle emission of fine dust particles by representing saltation bombardment. WRF-Chem model performance with the AFWA scheme is evaluated against observations of dust emission in southwest Asia and compared to emissions predicted by the other schemes built into the WRF-Chem GOCART model. Results highlight the relative strengths of the available schemes, indicate the reasons for disagreement, and demonstrate the need for improved soil source data.
  • New capabilities in CREATE™-AV Helios Version 11

    Abstract: CREATE™-AV Helios is a high-fidelity coupled CFD/CSD infrastructure developed by the U.S. Dept. of Defense for aeromechanics predictions of rotorcraft. This paper discusses new capabilities added to Helios version 11.0. A new fast-running reduced order aerodynamics option called ROAM has been added to enable faster-turnaround analysis. ROAM is Cartesian-based, employing an actuator line model for the rotor and an immersed boundary model for the fuselage. No near-body grid generation is required and simulations are significantly faster through a combination of larger timesteps and reduced cost per step. ROAM calculations of the JVX tiltrotor configuration give a comparably accurate download prediction to traditional body-fitted calculations with Helios, at 50X less computational cost. The unsteady wake in ROAM is not as well resolved, but wake interactions may be a less critical issue for many design considerations. The second capability discussed is the addition of six-degree-of-freedom capability to model store separation. Helios calculations of a generic wing/store/pylon case with the new 6-DOF capability are found to match identically to calculations with CREATE™-AV Kestrel, a code which has been extensively validated for store separation calculations over the past decade.
  • Summary of the SciTech 2020 Technical Panel on In Situ/In Transit Computational Environments for Visualization and Data Analysis

    Link: paper was originally presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) ScitTech 2020 Technical Panel and published online 4 January 2021. Funding by USACE ERDC under Army Direct funding.Report Number: ERDC/ITL MP-21-10Title: Summary of the SciTech 2020 Technical Panel on In