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Tag: Sedimentation and deposition
  • Wabash and Ohio River Confluence Hydraulic and Sediment Transport Model Investigation: A Report for US Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District

    Abstract: Avulsions of the Wabash River in 2008 through 2011 at its confluence with the Ohio River resulted in significant shoaling in the Ohio River. This caused a re-alignment of the navigation channel and the need for frequent dredging. A two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model, Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH), was developed to simulate base (existing) conditions and then altered to simulate multiple alternative scenarios to address these sediment issues. The study was conducted in two phases, Phase 1 in 2013 – 2015 and Phase 2 in 2018 – 2020. Field data were collected and consisted of multi-beam bathymetric elevations, bed sediment samples, suspended sediment samples, and discharge and velocity measurements. The model hydrodynamic and sediment transport computations adequately replicated the water surface slope, flow splits, bed sediment gradations, and suspended sediment concentrations when compared with field data. Thus, it was shown to be dependable as a predictive tool. The alternative that produced the most desirable results included a combination of three level-crested emergent dikes on Wabash Island and four submerged dikes on the Illinois shore with a level crest from the bank to the tip of the dike. The selected alternative produced an improved sailing line while maintaining authorized channel depths.
  • Sediment Transport Modeling at Stono Inlet and Adjacent Beaches, South Carolina

    Abstract: This report documents a numerical modeling investigation for dredged material from nearshore borrow areas and placed on Folly Beach adjacent to Stono Inlet, South Carolina. Historical and newly collected wave and hydrodynamic data around the inlet were assembled and analyzed. The datasets were used to calibrate and validate a coastal wave, hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, the Coastal Modeling System. Sediment transport and morphology changes within and around the immediate vicinity of the Stono Inlet estuarine system, including sand borrow areas and nearshore Folly Beach area, were evaluated. Results of model simulations show that sand removal in the borrow areas increases material backfilling, which is more significant in the nearshore than the offshore borrow areas. In the nearshore Folly Beach area, the dominant flow and sediment transport directions are from the northeast to the southwest. Net sediment gain occurs in the central and southwest sections while net sediment loss occurs in the northeast section of Folly Island. A storm and a 1-year simulation developed for the study produce a similar pattern of morphology changes, and erosion and deposition around the borrow areas and the nearshore Folly Beach area.
  • Spatial Distribution and Thickness of Fine-Grained Sediment along the United States Portion of the Upper Niagara River, New York

    Abstract: Over 220 linear miles of geophysical data, including sidescan sonar and chirp sub-bottom profiles, were collected in 2016 and 2017 by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the upper Niagara River. In addition, 36 sediment grab samples were collected to groundtruth the geophysical data. These data were used to map the spatial distribution of fine-grained sediment, including volume data in certain locations, along the shallow shorelines of the upper Niagara River. Overall, the most extensive deposits were spatially associated with either small tributaries or with man-made structures that modified the natural flow of the system. Extensive beds of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) were also mapped. Although always associated with a fine-grained matrix, the SAV beds were patchy in distribution, which might reflect subtle differences in the grain size of the sediment matrix or could simply be a function of variations in species or growth. The maps generated from this effort can be used to guide sampling plans for future studies of contamination in fine-grained sediment regions.
  • Houston Ship Channel Expansion Channel Improvement Project (ECIP) Numerical Modeling Report: BABUS Cell and Bird Island Analysis

    Abstract: The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is one of the busiest deep-draft navigation channels in the United States and must be able to accommodate increasing vessel sizes. The US Army Engineer District, Galveston (SWG), requested the Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, perform hydrodynamic and sediment modeling of proposed modifications in Galveston and Trinity Bays and along the HSC. The modeling results are necessary to provide data for hydrodynamic, salinity, and sediment transport analysis. SWG provided three project alternatives that include closing Rollover Pass, Bay Aquatic Beneficial Use System cells, Bird Islands, and HSC modifications. These alternatives and a Base (existing condition) will be simulated for present (2029) and future (2079) conditions. The results of these alternatives/conditions as compared to the Base are presented in this report. The model shows that the mean salinity varies by 2–3 ppt due to the HSC channel modifications and by approximately 5 ppt in the area of East Bay due to the closure of Rollover Pass. The tidal prism increases by 2.5% to 5% in the alternatives. The tidal amplitudes change by less than 0.01 m. The residual velocity vectors vary in and around areas where project modifications are made.
  • Elevation of underlying basement rock, Ogdensburg Harbor, NY

    Abstract: Over six linear miles of shallow acoustic reflection geophysical data were collected in an 800 ft by 300 ft survey region at Ogdensburg Harbor, Ogdensburg, NY. To better accommodate modern commercial vessels and expand the harbor’s capacity, the current navigable depth of -19 ft Low Water Depth (LWD) needs to be increased to -28 ft LWD, and an accurate map of the nature of the riverbed material (e.g., unconsolidated sediment, partially indurated glacial till, or bedrock) is required to effectively plan for removal. A total of 28 boreholes were previously collected to map the stratigraphy, and the effort revealed significant spatial variability in unit thickness and elevation between adjacent boreholes. To accurately map this variable stratigraphy, chirp sub-bottom profiles were collected throughout the region, with an average line spacing of 13 ft. These sub-bottom data, validated and augmented by the borehole data, resulted in high-resolution spatial maps of stratigraphic elevation and thickness for the study area. The data will allow for more accurate assessment of the type and extent of different dredging efforts required to achieve a future uniform depth of -28 ft LWD for the navigable region.
  • Modeling the Effect of Increased Sediment Loading on Bed Elevations of the Lower Missouri River

    Purpose: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Regional Sediment Management Technical Note (RSM-TN) documents the effects of increased sediment loading to the Missouri River on bed elevations in the lower 498 miles. This was accomplished using a one-dimensional (1D) HEC-RAS 5.0.7 sediment model.
  • Investigation for Shoaling Reduction along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) at Caney Creek, Sargent, Texas

    Purpose: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regional Sediment Management (RSM) initiative considered alternatives for shoaling reduction in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) in the vicinity of Caney Creek near Sargent, TX (Figure 1). Additionally, new beneficial use (BU) sites were considered along degraded islands adjacent to the GIWW with a threefold objective: increase the quality and quantity of habitat, reduce dredging cost via shorter pump distance, and reduce shoaling in the GIWW through East Matagorda Bay.
  • Development of a HEC-RAS Sediment Model for the Chippewa River, Wisconsin for Use in Predicting Future Dredging Activities

    Purpose: This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regional Sediment Management Technical Note (RSM-TN) describes the process of constructing and calibrating a sediment model that utilizes recent sediment data collection efforts performed by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center – Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (ERDC-CHL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) along the Chippewa River in Wisconsin. A USACE Institute for Water Resources (IWR), Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System (HEC-RAS, version 5.0.7) unsteady flow sediment model was developed to perform a continuous simulation of bed-load and suspended load transport and dredging operations through the Chippewa River and Lower Pool 4 of the Upper Mississippi River navigation channel. The resulting model developed through this effort can be useful in forecasting future channel maintenance needs through this reach of river.
  • Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Modeling for James River Dredged Material Management

    Abstract: The fate of material placed during dredging operations within the James River (Dancing Point-Swann Point reach) at a channel adjacent placement mound was modeled within this work. The study focuses on the potential migration of the placement mound into the channel as well as the transport of sediment resuspended during placement. A select combination of US Army Engineer Research and Development-developed models was utilized in this work to appropriately simulate hydrodynamic conditions, pipeline discharge near field suspended sediment estimates, far field transport of the pipeline discharge source term, and mound migration. Results show that the material released into the water column during placement remains in the placement area or is transported out of the area of interest downstream. A small fraction of sediment from the placement mound migrates into the channel after placement. The fine-grained nature of these sediments precludes these small volumes of sediment from depositing in the channel where the currents are strong.
  • Framework Geology of Cape Shoalwater and Northwest Willapa Bay, Washington: Assessing Potential Geologic Impacts on Recent Shoreline Change

    Abstract: The shoreline along Cape Shoalwater and northwest Willapa Bay has experienced the highest rates of erosion along the entire Pacific Coast of the United States, due in part to rapid northward migration of the navigation channel. Recently, channel migration and shoreline erosion in this region have slowed, but the cause of this relative stabilization, and thus the longevity of these new patterns, is unknown. Given the complex neotectonics and geologic framework of the southern coast of Washington, it is possible that underlying, erosion-resistant geologic units have become exposed along the channel and/or in the nearshore, and are acting to reduce or halt channel migration and/or shoreline erosion. Conversely, the apparent reduction may be due to subtle, short-term changes in regional hydrodynamics and/or sediment transport, and thus future rates of channel migration and/or shoreline erosion might increase back to historical rates. The purpose of this special report is to detail the geologic and neotectonic framework of the northern Willapa Bay region, and determine how the underlying framework geology might be impacting channel stability and adjacent shoreline erosion rates. Suggested research questions to quantify potential geologic control are also presented, including the potential benefits of the research to the district.