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Tag: Sedimentation and deposition
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  • Development of a Two-Dimensional HEC-RAS Sediment Model for the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, for Software Development and Sediment Trend Analysis

    Abstract: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Regional Sediment Management technical note (RSM-TN) describes an RSM effort that converted a one-dimensional (1D) sediment transport model of the Chippewa River confluence with the Mississippi River into a two-dimensional (2D) model. This work leveraged recent sediment data collection and tested the new 2D sediment transport capabilities in the Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Version 6.0. In addition to the benefits of software testing, the resulting model developed through this effort can provide more accurate spatial and temporal information about sedimentation in the Mississippi River navigation channel and help inform future dredging strategies for the St. Paul District, USACE.
  • South Shore of Long Island, New York Regional Sediment Management Investigation: An Overview of Challenges and Opportunities

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting the “South Shore of Long Island, New York Regional Sediment Management Investigation” to further understand sediment dynamics and to develop a comprehensive regional sediment management plan for the south shore of Long Island, New York. Regional sediment management is a systems approach using best management practices for more efficient and effective use of sediments in coastal, estuarine, and inland environments. This investigation seeks to characterize sediment movement on the south shore of Long Island as a holistic system across the entire study area. It focuses on the regional system post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012) as the storm significantly altered the physical landscape with severe shoreline erosion, which resulted in the construction of projects to reduce the risk of future storms and stakeholder priorities with a new emphasis on bay-side sediment dynamics, such as channel shoaling and disappearing wetlands. Despite the fact the storm caused severe erosion, the equilibrium beach profile, depth of closure, and general shoreline orientation seem to be unaffected. Previous studies have characterized sediment movement at specific sections of the south shore, but these data have not been incorporated to create a system-wide perspective. Coordinating sediment management across the six Atlantic Ocean inlets, Great South Bay Channel, Intracoastal Waterway, and coastal storm risk management (CSRM) projects could save the federal government millions of dollars in dredging and sand placement actions. This technical note presents the progress the investigation has made to date and will be followed with a more in-depth technical report titled South Shore of Long Island, New York Regional Sediment Management Investigation: A Post-Hurricane Sandy Shoreline Evaluation, currently in preparation.
  • Tombigbee River: River Miles 81.0–76.0 Sediment Management Study

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District, Applied River Engineering Center (AREC), in cooperation with the Operations Branch of the Mobile District, conducted a sediment management study of the Sunflower Bend reach of the Tombigbee River, between River Miles 81.0 and 76.0, near Jackson, AL. The objective of the study was to look at sediment management alternatives to alleviate or eliminate repetitive maintenance dredging. These alternatives involved various river engineering measures including dikes, weirs, channel armoring, disposal armoring, and combinations thereof. A physical Hydraulic Sediment Response model was used to examine the sediment response resulting from these alternatives. During model testing, and after discussions with AREC and Mobile Operations Division staff, a second objective was established to define existing non-erodible bed materials that were located throughout the reach. This was conducted to examine the merits of strategically removing these erosion resistant materials in the river as an additional dredging/excavation alternative. The most favorable alternatives involved removing bedload sand and consolidated clay material from between River Miles 79.1 and 78.0 to improve navigation.
  • Evaluating Cross-Shore Sediment Grain Size Distribution, Sediment Transport, and Morphological Evolution of a Nearshore Berm at Fort Myers Beach, Florida

    Abstract: Navigation channels are periodically dredged to maintain safe depths. Dredged sediment was historically placed in upland management areas or in offshore disposal areas. Florida state law prohibits placement of beach fill sediment that contains more than 10% by weight of silt and clay, which is typically a characteristic of dredged material. An alternative is placement in a nearshore berm. Some potential benefits of nearshore berms include wave energy dissipation, reduced cost of dredging and shore protection, and possible onshore movement of the berm material. This study considers sediment distribution, morphological evolution, sediment transport, and shoreline trends along Fort Myers Beach, Florida, related to the nearshore berm constructed in August 2016. Due to timing of the field study, this report also includes information on the influence of a major hurricane that impacted the area. The overall conclusion of this study is that the dredge-sourced sediment in the berm performed as expected. Within 2 years, the berm adjusted to the shoreface environment, maintained a large part of its original volume, and contributed to protection of the beach and shoreline. The impact of Hurricane Irma included a shift in sediment textures and a large but temporary increase in shoreface sediment volumes.
  • Wabash and Ohio River Confluence Hydraulic and Sediment Transport Model Investigation: A Report for US Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District

    Abstract: Avulsions of the Wabash River in 2008 through 2011 at its confluence with the Ohio River resulted in significant shoaling in the Ohio River. This caused a re-alignment of the navigation channel and the need for frequent dredging. A two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model, Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH), was developed to simulate base (existing) conditions and then altered to simulate multiple alternative scenarios to address these sediment issues. The study was conducted in two phases, Phase 1 in 2013 – 2015 and Phase 2 in 2018 – 2020. Field data were collected and consisted of multi-beam bathymetric elevations, bed sediment samples, suspended sediment samples, and discharge and velocity measurements. The model hydrodynamic and sediment transport computations adequately replicated the water surface slope, flow splits, bed sediment gradations, and suspended sediment concentrations when compared with field data. Thus, it was shown to be dependable as a predictive tool. The alternative that produced the most desirable results included a combination of three level-crested emergent dikes on Wabash Island and four submerged dikes on the Illinois shore with a level crest from the bank to the tip of the dike. The selected alternative produced an improved sailing line while maintaining authorized channel depths.
  • Sediment Transport Modeling at Stono Inlet and Adjacent Beaches, South Carolina

    Abstract: This report documents a numerical modeling investigation for dredged material from nearshore borrow areas and placed on Folly Beach adjacent to Stono Inlet, South Carolina. Historical and newly collected wave and hydrodynamic data around the inlet were assembled and analyzed. The datasets were used to calibrate and validate a coastal wave, hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, the Coastal Modeling System. Sediment transport and morphology changes within and around the immediate vicinity of the Stono Inlet estuarine system, including sand borrow areas and nearshore Folly Beach area, were evaluated. Results of model simulations show that sand removal in the borrow areas increases material backfilling, which is more significant in the nearshore than the offshore borrow areas. In the nearshore Folly Beach area, the dominant flow and sediment transport directions are from the northeast to the southwest. Net sediment gain occurs in the central and southwest sections while net sediment loss occurs in the northeast section of Folly Island. A storm and a 1-year simulation developed for the study produce a similar pattern of morphology changes, and erosion and deposition around the borrow areas and the nearshore Folly Beach area.
  • Spatial Distribution and Thickness of Fine-Grained Sediment along the United States Portion of the Upper Niagara River, New York

    Abstract: Over 220 linear miles of geophysical data, including sidescan sonar and chirp sub-bottom profiles, were collected in 2016 and 2017 by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the upper Niagara River. In addition, 36 sediment grab samples were collected to groundtruth the geophysical data. These data were used to map the spatial distribution of fine-grained sediment, including volume data in certain locations, along the shallow shorelines of the upper Niagara River. Overall, the most extensive deposits were spatially associated with either small tributaries or with man-made structures that modified the natural flow of the system. Extensive beds of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) were also mapped. Although always associated with a fine-grained matrix, the SAV beds were patchy in distribution, which might reflect subtle differences in the grain size of the sediment matrix or could simply be a function of variations in species or growth. The maps generated from this effort can be used to guide sampling plans for future studies of contamination in fine-grained sediment regions.
  • Houston Ship Channel Expansion Channel Improvement Project (ECIP) Numerical Modeling Report: BABUS Cell and Bird Island Analysis

    Abstract: The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is one of the busiest deep-draft navigation channels in the United States and must be able to accommodate increasing vessel sizes. The US Army Engineer District, Galveston (SWG), requested the Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, perform hydrodynamic and sediment modeling of proposed modifications in Galveston and Trinity Bays and along the HSC. The modeling results are necessary to provide data for hydrodynamic, salinity, and sediment transport analysis. SWG provided three project alternatives that include closing Rollover Pass, Bay Aquatic Beneficial Use System cells, Bird Islands, and HSC modifications. These alternatives and a Base (existing condition) will be simulated for present (2029) and future (2079) conditions. The results of these alternatives/conditions as compared to the Base are presented in this report. The model shows that the mean salinity varies by 2–3 ppt due to the HSC channel modifications and by approximately 5 ppt in the area of East Bay due to the closure of Rollover Pass. The tidal prism increases by 2.5% to 5% in the alternatives. The tidal amplitudes change by less than 0.01 m. The residual velocity vectors vary in and around areas where project modifications are made.
  • Elevation of underlying basement rock, Ogdensburg Harbor, NY

    Abstract: Over six linear miles of shallow acoustic reflection geophysical data were collected in an 800 ft by 300 ft survey region at Ogdensburg Harbor, Ogdensburg, NY. To better accommodate modern commercial vessels and expand the harbor’s capacity, the current navigable depth of -19 ft Low Water Depth (LWD) needs to be increased to -28 ft LWD, and an accurate map of the nature of the riverbed material (e.g., unconsolidated sediment, partially indurated glacial till, or bedrock) is required to effectively plan for removal. A total of 28 boreholes were previously collected to map the stratigraphy, and the effort revealed significant spatial variability in unit thickness and elevation between adjacent boreholes. To accurately map this variable stratigraphy, chirp sub-bottom profiles were collected throughout the region, with an average line spacing of 13 ft. These sub-bottom data, validated and augmented by the borehole data, resulted in high-resolution spatial maps of stratigraphic elevation and thickness for the study area. The data will allow for more accurate assessment of the type and extent of different dredging efforts required to achieve a future uniform depth of -28 ft LWD for the navigable region.
  • Modeling the Effect of Increased Sediment Loading on Bed Elevations of the Lower Missouri River

    Purpose: This US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Regional Sediment Management Technical Note (RSM-TN) documents the effects of increased sediment loading to the Missouri River on bed elevations in the lower 498 miles. This was accomplished using a one-dimensional (1D) HEC-RAS 5.0.7 sediment model.