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PUBLICATION NOTICE: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Budding Yeast); Standard Operating Procedure Series: Toxicology (T)

US Army Engineer Research and Development Center
Published Aug. 21, 2019

The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center has published the report/note described and linked below. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Report Number:



Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Budding Yeast); Standard Operating Procedure Series: Toxicology (T)


Chelsea Campbell, Cullen Horstmann, Kyoungtae Kim and Alan J. Kennedy


Engineered Nano Materials (ENMs) are commercially used in everyday products, including zinc sunscreens and water resistant fabrics and surfaces, but in the future, they may be used in targeted treatment of cancer, printable monitoring systems, and foldable phones. Understanding the effects of ENMs on the environment is crucial for the responsible use of these technologies. The aim of this project is to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) for investigating the effects of ENMs on budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The ENMs used to develop this protocol were Ag and CdSe/ZnS. Toxicity was determined using plate assays to analyze the effect of ENMs on the growth cycle, Fun-1 staining assays to understand the effects on cell metabolism, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RNAseq to understand the effects on genetic expression. From plate assays, doubling times, average time spent in lag phase, maximum concentrations were determined and compared between yeast grown in varying concentrations of ENMs, and a yeast grown in a control environment. Fun-1 staining determines the amount of metabolically active cells present in a treated cell culture. RNAseq and Quantitative PCR results, in expression levels of genes, are used to determine potential toxic effects of ENMs.

40 pgs / 1.4 mb


ERDC is a diverse research organization with approximately 2,000 employees operating more than $1 billion in world class facilities at seven laboratories. Its annual program exceeds $1 billion as it supports the Department of Defense and other agencies in military and civilian projects. Principal research areas include Soldier support, Engineered Resilient Systems, Environmental Quality and Installations, Geospatial Research and Engineering, Military Engineering, and Water Resources.  “Discover ▪ Develop ▪ Deliver”

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