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Tag: Insensitive Munitions
  • Live-Fire Validation of Command-Detonation Residues Testing Using an 81 mm IMX-104 Munition

    Abstract: Postdetonation energetic residues can have environmental impacts that present a risk to military training-range sustainment. As munitions with new explosive formulations are developed and fielded, quantitative methods for assessing their residues are needed. Command detonation (i.e., static firing) allows residue testing to occur early in the acquisition process; however, its representation of live-fire residue production is uncertain due to differences in the initiation mechanism and cartridge orientation. This study aims to validate residue testing by command detonation through statistical comparison of residue deposition rates between live fire and command detonation. Live-fire residues were collected from fourteen 81 mm IMX-104 mortar cartridges fired onto snow, and deposition rates were compared with previous command-detonation tests of the same munition. Average live-fire deposition rates were 8000 mg NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), 60 mg DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole), 20 mg RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), and 2 mg HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane) per cartridge. Compared to command detonation, live fire of the study munition produced significantly greater residues of NTO (p < 0.0001) and RDX (p = 0.01) but not DNAN (p = 0.067). Although absolute deposition rates of some IMX-104 compounds differed, command detonation was successful at predicting the order of magnitude of each IMX-104 compound for the studied 81 mm munition.
  • Live-Fire Validation of Command-Detonation Residues Testing Using a 60 mm IMX-104 Munition

    Abstract: Command detonation (i.e., static firing) provides a method of testing munitions for their postdetonation residues early in the acquisition process. However, necessary modifications to the firing train and cartridge orientation raise uncertainty whether command detonation accurately represents residue deposition as it occurs during live-fire training. This study collected postdetonation residues from live-fired 60 mm IMX-104 mortar cartridges and then compared estimated energetic-compound deposition rates between live fire and prior command detonations of the same munition. Average live-fire deposition rates of IMX-104 compounds deter-mined from 11 detonations were 3800 mg NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), 34 mg DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole), 12 mg RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-Triazine), and 1.9 mg HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocane) per cartridge. Total live-fire residue deposition (mean ± standard deviation: 3800 ± 900 mg/cartridge) was not significantly different from command detonation using a representative fuze simulator (3800 ± 900 mg/cartridge, n = 7, p = 0.76) but was significantly different from command detonation using a simplified fuze simulator (2200 ± 500 mg/cartridge, n = 7, p < 0.01). While the dominant residue compound NTO was broadly similar between live fire and command detonation, the minor residue compounds RDX and DNAN were underestimated during command detonation by a factor of approximately three to seven.
  • Determination of Residual Low-Order Detonation Particle Characteristics from IMX-104 Mortar Rounds

    ABSTRACT: The environmental fate and transport of energetic compounds on military training ranges are largely controlled by the particle characteristics of low-order detonations. This study demonstrated a method of command detonation, field sampling, laboratory processing, and analysis techniques for characterizing low-order detonation particles from 60 mm and 81 mm mortar rounds containing the insensitive munition formulation IMX-104. Particles deposited from three rounds of each caliber were comprehensively sampled and characterized for particle size, energetic purity, and morphology. The 60 mm rounds were command-detonated low order consistently (seven low-order detonations of seven tested rounds), with consumption efficiencies of 62%–80% (n = 3). The 81 mm rounds detonated low order inconsistently (three low-order detonations of ten tested rounds), possibly because the rounds were sourced from manufacturing test runs. These rounds had lower consumption efficiencies of 39%–64% (n = 3). Particle-size distributions showed significant variability between munition calibers, between rounds of the same caliber, and with distance from the detonation point. The study reviewed command-detonation configurations, particle transfer losses during sampling and particle-size analysis, and variations in the energetic purity of recovered particles. Overall, this study demonstrated the successful characterization of IMX-104 low-order detonation particles from command detonation to analysis.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Environmental Analysis of Aqueous 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-One (NTO) by Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection

    Abstract:  The newly fielded insensitive high-explosive compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is mobile in the environment due to its high water solubility and low affinity for soils. The weak acidity of NTO (pKa 3.67) presents a challenge to environmental analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography but enables direct separation by ion chromatography (IC). Here we developed an IC method for NTO in natural water, soil, and postdetonation residue. A gradient potassium hydroxide separation effectively resolved the inorganic anions (F−, Cl−, NO2−, Br−, SO42−, NO3−, and PO43−) and NTO in 18 minutes. Suppressed conductivity of aqueous NTO was linear from 10 µg/L to 10 mg/L with a detection limit of 3 µg/L and quantitation limit of 9 µg/L. Recoveries of NTO-spiked natural water samples were 93%–118% at concentrations of 30, 100, and 500 µg/L. Recoveries of NTO-spiked soil samples were 91%–114% using deionized water (DI) extraction. NTO was completely recovered with DI-extraction in two postdetonation residue samples of IMX-101 but only partially recovered (58% and 69%) in two higher-concentration residues, potentially due to incomplete dissolution of the energetic particle matrix. These results support IC for confirmation analysis of environmental samples and for screening natural water samples while simultaneously analyzing inorganic ions.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation Particles

     Link: Number: ERDC/CRREL TR-20-3Title: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation ParticlesBy Matthew F. Bigl, Samuel A. Beal, Michael R. Walsh, Charles A. Ramsey, and Katrina M. BurchApproved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited February