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Tag: Nitrosoguanidine
  • Identifying Degradation Products Responsible for Increased Toxicity of UV-Degraded Insensitive Munitions

    Abstract: Degradation of insensitive munitions (IMs) by ultraviolet (UV) light has become a concern following observations that some UV-degradation products have increased toxicity relative to parent compounds in aquatic organisms. This investigation focused on the Army's IM formulation, IMX101, composed of three IM constituents: 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The IM constituents and IMX101 were irradiated in a UV photo-reactor and then administered to Daphnia pulex in acute (48 h) exposures comparing toxicities relative to the parent materials. UV-degradation of DNAN had little effect on mortality whereas mortality for UV-degraded NTO and NQ increased by factors of 40.3 and 1240, making UV-degraded NQ the principle driver of toxicity when IMX101 is UV-degraded. Toxicity investigations for specific products formed during UV-degradation of NQ, confirmed greater toxicity than the parent NQ for degradation products. Summation of the individual toxic units for the complete set of individually measured UV-degradation products identified for NQ only accounted for 25% of the overall toxicity measured in the exposures to the UV-degraded NQ product mixture. Given the underestimation of toxicity using the sum toxic units for the individually measured UV-degradation products of NQ, we conclude that: (1) other unidentified NQ degradation products contributed principally to toxicity and/or (2) synergistic toxicological interactions occurred among the NQ degradation product mixture that exacerbated toxicity.