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Tag: Explosives--Detection
  • Methods for Simultaneous Determination of 29 Legacy and Insensitive Munition (IM) Constituents in Aqueous, Soil-Sediment, and Tissue Matrices by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Abstract: Standard methods are in place for analysis of 17 legacy munitions compounds and one surrogate in water and soil matrices; however, several insensitive munition (IM) and degradation products are not part of these analytical procedures. This lack could lead to inaccurate determinations of munitions in environmental samples by either not measuring for IM compounds or using methods not designed for IM and other legacy compounds. This work seeks to continue expanding the list of target analytes currently included in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8330B. This technical report presents three methods capable of detecting 29 legacy, IM, and degradation products in a single High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with either ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorbance detection or mass spectrometric detection. Procedures were developed from previously published works and include the addition of hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX); hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX); hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX); 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT); and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT). One primary analytical method and two secondary (confirmation) methods were developed capable of detecting 29 analytes and two surrogates. Methods for high water concentrations (direct injection), low-level water concentrations (solid phase extraction), soil (solvent extraction), and tissue (solvent extraction) were tested for analyte recovery of the new compounds.
  • Trace Explosives Detection by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS)

    Abstract: We built three successive versions of a thermal decomposition cavity ring-down spectrometer and tested their response to explosives. These explosive compound analyzers successfully detected nitroglycerine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythryl tetranitrate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine and triacetone triperoxide (TATP). We determined the pathlength and limits of detection for each, with the best limit of detection being 13 parts per trillion (ppt) of TNT. For most of the explosive tests, the peak height was higher than the expected value, meaning that peroxy radical chain propagation was occurring with each of the explosives and not just the peroxide TATP.