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Tag: diffraction
  • A Study on the Delta-Bullington Irregular Terrain Radiofrequency Propagation Model: Assessing Model Suitability for Use in Decision Support Tools

    ABSTRACT: Modeling the propagation of radiofrequency signals over irregular terrain is both challenging and critically important in numerous Army applications. One application of particular importance is the performance and radio connectivity of sensors deployed in scenarios where the terrain and the environment significantly impact signal propagation. This report investigates both the performance of and the algorithms and assumptions underlying the Delta-Bullington irregular terrain radiofrequency propagation model discussed in International Telecommunications Union Recommendation P.526-15. The aim is to determine its suitability for use within sensor-planning decision support tools. After reviewing free-space, spherical earth diffraction, and terrain obstacle diffraction losses, the report discusses several important tests of the model, including reciprocity and geographic continuity of propagation loss over large areas of rugged terrain. Overall, the Delta-Bullington model performed well, providing reasonably rapid and geographically continuous propagation loss estimates with computational demands appropriate for operational use.
  • Detecting Clandestine Tunnels by Using Near-Surface Seismic Techniques

    Abstract: Geophysical detection of clandestine tunnels is a complex problem that has been met with limited success. Multiple methods have been applied spanning several decades, but a reliable solution has yet to be found. This report presents shallow seismic data collected at a tunnel test site representative of geologic settings found along the southwestern U.S. border. Results demonstrate the capability of using compressional wave diffraction and surface-wave backscatter techniques to detect a purpose-built subterranean tunnel. Near-surface seismic data were also collected at multiple sites in Afghanistan to detect and locate subsurface anomalies (e.g., data collected over an escape tunnel discovered in 2011 at the Sarposa Prison in Kandahar, Afghanistan, which allowed more than 480 prisoners to escape, and data from another shallow tunnel recently discovered at an undisclosed location). The final example from Afghanistan is the first time surface-based seismic methods have detected a tunnel whose presence and location were not previously known. Seismic results directly led to the discovery of the tunnel. Interpreted tunnel locations for all examples were less than 2 m of the actual location. Seismic surface wave backscatter and body-wave diffraction methods show promise for efficient data acquisition and processing for locating purposefully hidden tunnels within unconsolidated sediments.