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Tag: Ultrasonic waves
  • Acoustic Nondestructive Testing and Measurement of Tension for Steel Reinforcing Members

    Abstract: Many concrete structures contain internal post-tensioned steel structural members that are subject to fracturing and corrosion. The major problem with conventional tension measurement techniques is that they use indirect and non-quantitative methods to determine whether there has been a loss of tension. We have developed an acoustics-based technology and method for making quantitative tension measurements of an embedded, tensioned steel member. The theory and model were verified in the laboratory using a variety of steel rods as test specimens. Field tests of the method were conducted at three Corps of Engineers dams, located in Oklahoma, Georgia, and Illinois. Measurements of the longitudinal and shear velocity were able to be made on rods up to 50 ft long. Not all rods of this length were able to be measured and the quality and consistency of the signal varied. There were fewer problems measuring the longitudinal velocity than shear velocity. While the tension predictions worked in the laboratory tests, the tension could not be accurately calculated for any of the field sites. This is because we were not able to obtain the longitudinal or shear velocities in an unstressed state or precise measurements of the longitudinal and shear velocities due to the lack of knowledge of the precise length of the rods in the tensioned state.
  • Optical and Acoustical Measurement of Ballistic Noise Signatures

    Abstract: Supersonic projectiles in air generate acoustical signatures that are fundamentally related to the projectile’s shape, size, and velocity. These characteristics influence various mechanisms involved in the generation, propagation, decay, and coalescence of acoustic waves. To understand the relationships between projectile shape, size, velocity, and the physical mechanisms involved, an experimental effort captured the acoustic field produced by a range of supersonic projectiles using both conventional pressure sensors and a schlieren imaging system. The results of this ongoing project will elucidate those fundamental mechanisms, enabling more sophisticated tools for detection, classification, localization, and tracking. This paper details the experimental setup, data collection, and preliminary analysis of a series of ballistic projectiles, both idealized and currently in use by the U.S. Military.