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  • Flowering Rush Control in Hydrodynamic Systems: Part 1: Water Exchange Processes

    Abstract: In 2018, field trials evaluated water-exchange processes using rhodamine WT dye to provide guidance on the effective management of flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus L.) at McNary Dam and Reservoir (Wallula Lake, 15,700 ha). Additional evaluations determined the effectiveness of BubbleTubing (hereafter referred to as bubble curtain) at reducing water exchange within potential flowering rush treatment areas. Dye readings were collected from multiple sampling points at specific time intervals until a dye half-life could be determined. Whole-plot dye half-lives at sites without bubble curtain ranged 0.56–6.7 h. In slower water-exchange sites (≥2.6 h dye half-life), the herbicide diquat should have a sufficient contact time to significantly reduce flowering rush aboveground biomass. Other sites demonstrated very rapid water exchange (<1.5 h dye half-life), likely too rapid to effectively control flowering rush using chemical treatments without the use of a barrier or curtain to slow water exchange. At one site, the use of the bubble curtain increased the dye half-life from 3.8 h with no curtain to 7.6 and 7.1 h with a bubble curtain. The bubble curtain’s ability to slow water exchange will provide improved chemical control and increase the potential for other chemical products to be effectively used.
  • Efficacy of Florpyrauxifen-benzyl on Dioecious Hydrilla and Hybrid Water Milfoil - Concentration and Exposure Time Requirements

    Abstract: This study conducted small-scale trials under various concentration and exposure time (CET) scenarios to determine florpyrauxifen-benzyl activity on dioecious hydrilla and hybrid watermilfoil and determine impact on water stargrass and elodea. Hydrilla treated with 12, 24, or 36 μg active ingredient (a.i.) L⁻¹ florpyrauxifen-benzyl and exposed for 12, 24, or 48 hr under outdoor mesocosm conditions was reduced in biomass by 30-75% at 8 weeks after treatment (WAT). An additional hydrilla trial at the same herbicide concentrations, but under longer exposures (24, 72, or 168 hr), resulted in 33–85% plant control. Under indoor conditions, hybrid watermilfoil dry weight decreased 98–100% with subsurface applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl under CET scenarios of 3–12 μg a.i. L⁻¹ at 3–24 hr exposure times in a growth chamber trial. Under shorter exposure periods (0.5–4 hr) in a follow-up trial, low doses (3–9 μg a.i. L⁻¹) achieved 50–100% control of hybrid watermilfoil. In the same trial, the nontarget species water stargrass and elodea proved relatively tolerant to the florpyrauxifen-benzyl at doses up to 6 μg a.i. L⁻¹ (4 hr exposure) and 9 μg a.i. L⁻¹ (1 hr exposure). These small-scale trials demonstrate florpyrauxifen-benzyl’s potential to selectively manage invasive species.
  • Evaluation of New Endothall and Florpyrauxifen-benzyl Use Patterns for Controlling Crested Floating Heart and Giant Salvinia

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to (1) evaluate concentration exposure time (CET) relationships for florpyrauxifen-benzyl (ProcellaCOR) for control of the floating leaved plant crested floating heart (Nymphoides cristata, CFH) and (2) evaluate foliar applications of endothall (Aquathol K) for control of CFH and the floating fern giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta).