Publication Notices

Notifications of the Newest Publications and Reports Released by ERDC

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Tag: Infrared detectors
  • Buried-Object-Detection Improvements Incorporating Environmental Phenomenology into Signature Physics

    Abstract: The ability to detect buried objects is critical for the Army. Therefore, this report summarizes the fourth year of an ongoing study to assess environmental phenomenological conditions affecting probability of detection and false alarm rates for buried-object detection using thermal infrared sensors. This study used several different approaches to identify the predominant environmental variables affecting object detection: (1) multilevel statistical modeling, (2) direct image analysis, (3) physics-based thermal modeling, and (4) application of machine learning (ML) techniques. In addition, this study developed an approach using a Canny edge methodology to identify regions of interest potentially harboring a target object. Finally, an ML method was developed to improve automatic target detection and recognition performance by accounting for environmental phenomenological conditions, improving performance by 50% over standard automatic target detection and recognition software.
  • Thermal Infra-Red Comparison Study of Buried Objects between Humid and Desert Test Beds

    Abstract: This study pertains to the thermal variations caused by buried objects and their ramifications on soil phenomenology. A multitude of environmental conditions were investigated to observe the effect on thermal infrared sensor performance and detection capabilities. Correlations between these external variables and sensor contrast metrics enable determinable key factors responsible for sensor degradation. This document consists of two parts. The first part is a summary of data collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer and Research and Development Center Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (ERDC-CRREL), ERDC-Geotechnical Structures Laboratory, and Desert Research Institute at the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) site in February 2020 and observations from this activity. The second part is a comparison of target visibility between data collected at YPG and data collected at the ERDC-CRREL test site in 2018.
  • Modernizing Environmental Signature Physics for Target Detection—Phase 3

    Abstract: The present effort (Phase 3) builds on our previously published prior efforts (Phases 1 and 2), which examined methods of determining the probability of detection and false alarm rates using thermal infrared for buried object detection. Environmental phenomenological effects are often represented in weather forecasts in a relatively coarse, hourly resolution, which introduces concerns such as exclusion or misrepresentation of ephemera or lags in timing when using this data as an input for the Army’s Tactical Assault Kit software system. Additionally, the direct application of observed temperature data with weather model data may not be the best approach because metadata associated with the observations are not included. As a result, there is a need to explore mathematical methods such as Bayesian statistics to incorporate observations into models. To better address this concern, the initial analysis in Phase 2 data is expanded in this report to include (1) multivariate analyses for detecting objects in soil, (2) a moving box analysis of object visibility with alternative methods for converting FLIR radiance values to thermal temperature values, (3) a calibrated thermal model of soil temperature using thermal IR imagery, and (4) a simple classifier method for automating buried object detection.
  • Modernizing Environmental Signature Physics for Target Detection

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environmental phenomonology on the ability to detect buried objects and to provide a predictive capability of when targets are best detectable with IR sensors. Jay Clausen presented this material at the ERDC RD20 Conference.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Spatial and Temporal Variance in the Thermal Response of Buried Objects

    ABSTRACT:  Probability of detection and false alarm rates for current military sensor systems used for detecting buried objects are often unacceptable. One approach to increasing sensor performance and detection reliability is to better understand which physical processes are dominant under certain environmental conditions. Incorporating this understanding into detection algorithms will improve detection performance. Our approach involved studying a small, 3.05 × 3.05 m, test plot at the Engineer Research and Development Center’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (ERDC-CRREL) in Hanover, New Hampshire. There we monitored a number of environmental variables (soil temperature moisture, and chemistry as well as air temperature and humidity, cloud cover, and incoming solar radiation) coupled with thermal infrared and electro-optical image collection. Data collection occurred over 4 months with measurements made at 15 minute intervals. Initial findings show that significant spatial and thermal temporal variability is caused by incoming solar radiation; meteorologically driven surface heat exchange; and subsurface-soil temperatures, density, moisture content, and surface roughness.