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Tag: Soil pollution
  • Dissolution of NTO, DNAN, and Insensitive Munitions Formulations and Their Fates in Soils: SERDP ER-2220

    Abstract: The US military is interested in replacing TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) with DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), which have similar explosive characteristics but are less likely to detonate unintentionally. Although these replacements are good explosives, basic information about their fate and transport was needed to evaluate their environmental impact and life-cycle management. This project measured their dissolution, photodegradation, and how aqueous solutions interact with soils, data critical to determining exposure potential and, consequently, risk.
  • Methods for Simultaneous Determination of 29 Legacy and Insensitive Munition (IM) Constituents in Aqueous, Soil-Sediment, and Tissue Matrices by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Abstract: Standard methods are in place for analysis of 17 legacy munitions compounds and one surrogate in water and soil matrices; however, several insensitive munition (IM) and degradation products are not part of these analytical procedures. This lack could lead to inaccurate determinations of munitions in environmental samples by either not measuring for IM compounds or using methods not designed for IM and other legacy compounds. This work seeks to continue expanding the list of target analytes currently included in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8330B. This technical report presents three methods capable of detecting 29 legacy, IM, and degradation products in a single High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with either ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorbance detection or mass spectrometric detection. Procedures were developed from previously published works and include the addition of hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX); hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX); hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX); 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT); and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT). One primary analytical method and two secondary (confirmation) methods were developed capable of detecting 29 analytes and two surrogates. Methods for high water concentrations (direct injection), low-level water concentrations (solid phase extraction), soil (solvent extraction), and tissue (solvent extraction) were tested for analyte recovery of the new compounds.
  • Hydrocarbon Treatability Study of Antarctica Soil with Fenton’s Reagent

    Abstract: The study objectives were to determine the effectiveness of Fenton’s Reagent and Modified Fenton’s Reagent in reducing Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in petroleum-contaminated soil from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Comparisons of the contaminated soils were made, and a treatability study was completed and documented. This material was presented at the Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation (AEHS) 30th Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy, and Air (Virtual) on March 25, 2021.
  • Application of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Subsurface Sampling

    ABSTRACT:  Historically, researchers studying contaminated sites have used grab sampling to collect soil samples. However, this methodology can introduce error in the analysis because it does not account for the wide variations of contaminant concentrations in soil. An alternative method is the Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM), which previous studies have shown more accurately captures the true concentration of contaminants over an area, even in heterogeneous soils. This report describes the methods and materials used with ISM to collect soil samples, specifically for the purpose of mapping subsurface contamination from site activities. The field data presented indicates that ISM is a promising methodology for collecting subsurface soil samples containing contaminants of concern, including metals and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), for analysis. Ultimately, this study found ISM to be useful for supplying information to assist in the decisions needed for remediation activities.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Assessment for Soil Reuse Standards at McMurdo Station

    Abstract:  The soils at McMurdo Station in Antarctica contain hydrocarbons derived from accidental fuel spills and industrial development. The current practice for contaminated soils is to remove any material with concentrations greater than 100 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and to transport them to the United States for disposal. Any soils that contain concentrations of TPH less than 100 mg/kg can be reused on-site. While this is the current standard practice, there remains little evidence to verify that 100 mg/kg is an appropriate reuse standard. Moreover, the current practice is based on the guidelines for cleanup values in California (the port of entry where the soils are currently shipped for treatment and disposal), which has few environmental similarities with Antarctica. In the present study, we investigate current regulations for cleanup and soil reuse in U.S. states, Canadian territories, and other countries with cold climates. We also discuss case studies from Arctic and Antarctic regions where soil has been reused after treatment. Additionally, we present a site conceptual model for risk assessment based on known site information and recommend future focus areas for addressing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at McMurdo Station.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Fenton’s Reagent Treatability Study for Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    ABSTRACT:  Hydrocarbon-contaminated soil is distributed heterogeneously at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, which has served for over 60 years as the logistics hub for the U.S. Antarctic Program. Here we investigated the treatability of McMurdo Station’s contaminated soil with chemical oxidation. Our study collected five soil samples in 2018 and 2019, of which two contained high levels (>100 mg/kg) of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) suitable for the treatability study. One soil (ITC) was characterized by 1250 mg/kg of predominantly midrange (n-C8 to n-C16) hydrocarbons, and the other (Soil Pile) was characterized by 3500 mg/kg of predominantly heavy molecular weight (>n-C21) hydrocarbons. We investigated the treatability of these soils with both Fenton’s Reagent (pH < 3 with Fe2+) and modified Fenton’s Reagent (chelated Fe2+), each with hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 3% and 10%. Soil slurries were placed on a shaker table at 100 rpm and 4°C for up to 21 days. TPH concentrations were reduced by approximately 50% for ITC; however, the oxidative treatments did not out-perform controls. All treatments and controls yielded no significant reduction in Soil Pile TPH. Poor performance by these chemical oxidation treatments indicates that remediation of hydrocarbons at these sites may require further soil processing in combination with chemical oxidation or alternative treatment technologies.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation Particles

     Link: Number: ERDC/CRREL TR-20-3Title: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation ParticlesBy Matthew F. Bigl, Samuel A. Beal, Michael R. Walsh, Charles A. Ramsey, and Katrina M. BurchApproved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited February