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Tag: Fate and transport
  • Properties and Mechanisms for PFAS Adsorption to Aqueous Clay and Humic Soil Components

    Abstract: The proliferation of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) has resulted in global concerns over contamination and bioaccumulation. PFAS compounds tend to remain in the environment indefinitely, and research is needed to elucidate the ultimate fate of these molecules. We have investigated the model humic substance and model clay surfaces as a potential environmental sink for the adsorption and retention of three representative PFAS molecules with varying chain length and head groups. Utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, we quantify the ability of pyrophyllite and the humic substance to favorably adsorb these PFAS molecules from aqueous solution. We have observed that the hydrophobic nature of the pyrophyllite surface makes the material well suited for the sorption of medium- and long-tail PFAS moieties. Similarly, we find a preference for the formation of a monolayer on the surface for long-chain PFAS molecules at high concentration. Furthermore, we discussed trends in the adsorption mechanisms for the fate and transport of these compounds, as well as potential approaches for their environmental remediation.
  • Determination of Residual Low-Order Detonation Particle Characteristics from Composition B Mortar Rounds

    Empirical measurements of the spatial distribution, particle-size distribution, mass, morphology, and energetic composition of particles from low-order (LO) detonations are critical to accurately characterizing environ-mental impacts on military training ranges. This study demonstrated a method of generating and characterizing LO-detonation particles, previously applied to insensitive munitions, to 81 mm mortar rounds containing the conventional explosive formulation Composition B. The three sampled rounds had estimated detonation efficiencies ranging from 64% to 82% as measured by sampled residual energetic material. For all sampled rounds, energetic deposition rates were highest closer to the point of detonation; however, the mass per radial meter varied. The majority of particles (>60%), by mass, were <2 mm in size. However, the spatial distribution of the <2 mm particles from the point of detonation varied between the three sampled rounds. In addition to the particle-size-distribution results, several method performance observations were made, including command-detonation configurations, sampling quality control, particle-shape influence on laser-diffraction particle-size analysis (LD-PSA), and energetic purity trends. Overall, this study demonstrated the successful characterization of Composition B LO-detonation particles from command detonation through combined analysis by LD-PSA and sieving.
  • Environmental Impact of Metals Resulting from Military Training Activities: A Review

    Abstract: The deposition of metals into the environment as a result of military training activities remains a longterm concern for Defense organizations across the globe. Of particular concern for deposition and potential mobilization are antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and tungsten (W), which are the focus of this review article. The fate, transport, and mobilization of these metals are complicated and depend on a variety of environmental factors that are often convoluted, heterogeneous, and site dependent. While there have been many studies investigating contaminant mobilization on military training lands there exists a lack of cohesiveness surrounding the current state of knowledge for these five metals. The focus of this review article is to compile the current knowledge of the fate, transport, and ultimate risks presented by metals associated with different military training activities particularly as a result of small arms training activities, artillery/mortar ranges, battleruns, rocket ranges, and grenade courts. From there, we discuss emerging research results and finish with suggestions of where future research efforts and training range designs could be focused toward further reducing the deposition, limiting the migration, and decreasing risks presented by metals in the environment. Additionally, information presented here may offer insights into Sb, As, Cu, Pb, and W in other environmental settings.
  • Determination of Residual Low-Order Detonation Particle Characteristics from IMX-104 Mortar Rounds

    ABSTRACT: The environmental fate and transport of energetic compounds on military training ranges are largely controlled by the particle characteristics of low-order detonations. This study demonstrated a method of command detonation, field sampling, laboratory processing, and analysis techniques for characterizing low-order detonation particles from 60 mm and 81 mm mortar rounds containing the insensitive munition formulation IMX-104. Particles deposited from three rounds of each caliber were comprehensively sampled and characterized for particle size, energetic purity, and morphology. The 60 mm rounds were command-detonated low order consistently (seven low-order detonations of seven tested rounds), with consumption efficiencies of 62%–80% (n = 3). The 81 mm rounds detonated low order inconsistently (three low-order detonations of ten tested rounds), possibly because the rounds were sourced from manufacturing test runs. These rounds had lower consumption efficiencies of 39%–64% (n = 3). Particle-size distributions showed significant variability between munition calibers, between rounds of the same caliber, and with distance from the detonation point. The study reviewed command-detonation configurations, particle transfer losses during sampling and particle-size analysis, and variations in the energetic purity of recovered particles. Overall, this study demonstrated the successful characterization of IMX-104 low-order detonation particles from command detonation to analysis.
  • PUBLICATION NOTICE: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation Particles

     Link: Number: ERDC/CRREL TR-20-3Title: Sieve Stack and Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis of IMX-104 Low-Order Detonation ParticlesBy Matthew F. Bigl, Samuel A. Beal, Michael R. Walsh, Charles A. Ramsey, and Katrina M. BurchApproved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited February