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Tag: Metals
  • Environmental Impact of Metals Resulting from Military Training Activities: A Review

    Abstract: The deposition of metals into the environment as a result of military training activities remains a longterm concern for Defense organizations across the globe. Of particular concern for deposition and potential mobilization are antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and tungsten (W), which are the focus of this review article. The fate, transport, and mobilization of these metals are complicated and depend on a variety of environmental factors that are often convoluted, heterogeneous, and site dependent. While there have been many studies investigating contaminant mobilization on military training lands there exists a lack of cohesiveness surrounding the current state of knowledge for these five metals. The focus of this review article is to compile the current knowledge of the fate, transport, and ultimate risks presented by metals associated with different military training activities particularly as a result of small arms training activities, artillery/mortar ranges, battleruns, rocket ranges, and grenade courts. From there, we discuss emerging research results and finish with suggestions of where future research efforts and training range designs could be focused toward further reducing the deposition, limiting the migration, and decreasing risks presented by metals in the environment. Additionally, information presented here may offer insights into Sb, As, Cu, Pb, and W in other environmental settings.
  • Effects of Milling on the Metals Analysis of Soil Samples Containing Metallic Residues

    Abstract: Metallic residues are distributed heterogeneously onto small-arms range soils from projectile fragmentation upon impact with a target or berm backstop. Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) can address the spatially heterogeneous contamination of surface soils on small-arms ranges, but representative kilogram-sized ISM subsamples are affected by the range of metallic residue particle sizes in the sample. This study compares the precision and concentrations of metals in a small-arms range soil sample processed by a puck mill, ring and puck mill, ball mill, and mortar and pestle prior to analysis. The ball mill, puck mill, and puck and ring mill produced acceptable relative standard deviations of less than 15% for the anthropogenic metals of interest (Lead (Pb), Antimony (Sb), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn)), with the ball mill exhibiting the greatest precision for Pb, Cu, and Zn. Precision by mortar and pestle, without milling, was considerably higher (40% to >100%) for anthropogenic metals. Media anthropogenic metal concentrations varied by more than 40% between milling methods, with the greatest concentrations produced by the puck mill, followed by the puck and ring mill and then the ball mill. Metal concentrations were also dependent on milling time, with concentrations stabilizing for the puck mill by 300 s but still increasing for the ball mill over 20 h. Differences in metal concentrations were not directly related to the surface area of the milled sample. Overall, the tested milling methods were successful in producing reproducible data for soils containing metallic residues. However, the effects of milling type and time on concentrations require consideration in environmental investigations.
  • Application of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Subsurface Sampling

    ABSTRACT:  Historically, researchers studying contaminated sites have used grab sampling to collect soil samples. However, this methodology can introduce error in the analysis because it does not account for the wide variations of contaminant concentrations in soil. An alternative method is the Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM), which previous studies have shown more accurately captures the true concentration of contaminants over an area, even in heterogeneous soils. This report describes the methods and materials used with ISM to collect soil samples, specifically for the purpose of mapping subsurface contamination from site activities. The field data presented indicates that ISM is a promising methodology for collecting subsurface soil samples containing contaminants of concern, including metals and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), for analysis. Ultimately, this study found ISM to be useful for supplying information to assist in the decisions needed for remediation activities.
  • Matrix andPUBLICATION NOTICE: Target Particle-Size Effects on LIBS Analysis of Soils

     Link: Report Number: ERDC/CRREL TR-20-1Title: Matrix and Target Particle-Size Effects on LIBS Analysis of Soils By Samuel A. Beal, Ashley M. Mossell, and Jay L. Clausen Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited January 2020 ABSTRACT:  Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a rapid,