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  • Fort McCoy, Wisconsin Building 550 Maintenance Plan

    Abstract: Building 550 (former World War II fire station) is located on Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, and was recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 2018 (Smith and Adams 2018). The building is currently vacant. It is an intact example of an 800 Series World War II fire station with character-defining features of its period of significance from 1939 to 1946 on its exterior and interior. All buildings, especially historic ones, require regular planned maintenance and repair. The most notable cause of historic building element failure and/or decay is not the fact that the historic building is old, but rather it is caused by incorrect or inappropriate repair and/or basic neglect of the historic building fabric. This document is a maintenance manual compiled with as-is conditions of construction materials of Building 550. The Secretary of Interior Guidelines on rehabilitation and repair per material are discussed to provide the cultural resources manager at Fort McCoy a guide to maintain this historic building. This report satisfies Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966 as amended and will help the Fort McCoy Cultural Resources Management office to manage this historic building.
  • Evaluating the Conductive Properties of Melanin-Producing Fungus, Curvularia lunata, after Copper Doping

    ABSTRACT:  Melanins are pigmented biomacromolecules found throughout all do-mains of life. Of melanins’ many unique properties, their malleable electrically conductive properties and their ability to chelate could allow them to serve as material for bioelectronics. Studies have shown that sheets or pellets of melanin conduct low levels of electricity; however, electrical conductance of melanin within a cellular context has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, given the chelating properties of melanin, it is possible that introducing traditionally conductive metal ions could improve the conductivity. Therefore, this study investigated the conductive properties of melanized cells and how metal ions change these. We measured the conductivity of pulverized Curvularia lunata, a melanized filamentous fungi, with and without the addition of copper ions. We then compared the conductivity measurements of the fungus to chemically synthesized, commercially bought melanin. Our data showed that the conductivity of the melanized fungal biomass was an order of magnitude higher when grown in the presence of copper. However, it was two orders of magnitude less than that of synthetic melanin. Interestingly, conductance was measurable despite additional constituents in the pellet that may inhibit conductivity. Therefore, these data show promising results for using melanized cells to carry electrical signals.
  • A Measurement System for the Study of Nonlinear Propagation Through Arrays of Scatterers

    Abstract: Various experimental challenges exist in measuring the spatial and temporal field of a nonlinear acoustic pulse propagating through an array of scatterers. Probe interference and undesirable high-frequency response plague typical approaches with acoustic microphones, which are also limited to resolving the pressure field at a single position. Measurements made with optical methods do not have such drawbacks, and schlieren measurements are particularly well suited to measuring both the spatial and temporal evolution of nonlinear pulse propagation in an array of scatterers. Herein, a measurement system is described based on a z-type schlieren setup, which is suitable for measuring axisymmetric phenomena and visualizing weak shock propagation. In order to reduce directivity and initiate nearly spherically-symmetric propagation, laser induced breakdown serves as the source for the nonlinear pulse. A key component of the schlieren system is a standard schliere, which allows quantitative schlieren measurements to be performed. Sizing of the standard schliere is aided by generating estimates of the expected light refraction from the nonlinear pulse, by way of the forward Abel transform. Finally, considerations for experimental sequencing, image capture, and a reconfigurable rod array designed to minimize spurious wave interactions are specified.
  • Army Installations of the Future Industry Day 2019: Summary Report

    Abstract: The Army Installations of the Future Industry Day was held on 23 May 2019 at the Renaissance Capital View hotel in Arlington, VA to identify the availability and maturity of specific commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) “smart installation” capabilities, technologies, and products; and to seek interest from industry in exploring potential approaches, requirements, standards, and/or specifications for pilot demonstrations at Army installations focused on 10 use-case technology areas. The Industry Day event included approximately 336 participants comprised of Academia (5), Industry (226), and Government (105). This report presents “road maps” that outline the Army’s desired outcomes for the target technology areas and potential pilot technology demonstrations.
  • Numerical Analysis of Weak Acoustic Shocks in Aperiodic Array of Rigid Scatterers

    Abstract: Nonlinear propagation of shock waves through periodic structures have the potential to exhibit interesting phenomena. Frequency content of the shock that lies within a bandgap of the periodic structure is strongly attenuated, but nonlinear frequency-frequency interactions pumps energy back into those bands. To investigate the relative importance of these propagation phenomena, numerical experiments using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation are carried out. Two-dimensional propagation through a periodic array of rectangular waveguides is performed by iteratively using the output of one waveguide as the input for the next waveguide. Comparison of the evolution of the initial shock wave for both the linear and nonlinear cases is presented.
  • Geometric-Acoustics Analysis of Singly Scattered, Nonlinearly Evolving Waves by Circular Cylinders

    Abstract:  Geometric acoustics, or acoustic ray theory, is used to analyze the scattering of high-amplitude acoustic waves incident upon rigid circular cylinders. Theoretical predictions of the nonlinear evolution of the scattered wave field are provided, as well as measures of the importance of accounting for nonlinearity. An analysis of scattering by many cylinders is also provided, though the effects of multiple scattering are not considered. Provided the characteristic nonlinear distortion length is much larger than a cylinder radius, the nonlinear evolution of the incident wave is shown to be of much greater importance to the overall evolution than the nonlinear evolution of the individual scattered waves.
  • Estimating the Density of Secretive, At-risk Snake Species on DoD Installations Using an Innovative Approach: IDEASS

    Abstract: The Department of Defense (DoD) expends considerable resources managing and conserving threatened, endangered, or at-risk snake species. Management for these species is often hampered by a lack of basic knowledge regarding their population size and trajectory. The low detectability of most snakes makes it difficult to determine their presence, or to employ traditional methods to estimate abundance. This work demonstrated a novel, simulation-based method, Innovative Density Estimation Approach for Secretive Snakes (IDEASS), for estimating snake density based on systematic road surveys, behavioral observations of snake movement, and spatial movement (radio telemetry) data. This method was used to generate meaningful density estimates for two rare and cryptic snakes of conservation concern, the Southern Hognose and Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake, at Fort Stewart, Georgia. IDEASS was also applied to an existing dataset to retroactively estimate density of a more common species of management concern, the Western Ratsnake, at Fort Hood, Texas. In all three cases, traditional density estimation via visual surveys and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) failed completely due to lack of captures and re-captures, despite extensive field effort. We conclude that IDEASS represents a powerful tool, and in some cases the only viable method, for estimating density of secretive snakes.
  • Red River Structure Physical Model Study

    Abstract: A proposed Red River Structure (RRS), intended to function as one of three gated structures comprising the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Area Flood Risk Management Project, was tested in a general physical model. A 1:40 Froude-scale was applied to model the structure, engineered channels, existing bathymetry/topography in the Red River and overbank areas, and the proposed Southern Embankment. The physical model was used to ensure that the RRS could pass at least 104,300 cfs during the Probable Maximum Flood while maintaining a maximum pool water surface elevation of 923.5 ft. The physical model was also utilized to optimize the approach structure, stilling basin, retaining walls, and erosion protection designs. The physical modeling effort resulted in an optimized stilling basin wall, retaining wall, and end sill geometry/configuration where erosive conditions were not observed outside and adjacent to the stilling basin. Properly designed riprap (St. Paul District’s R470 gradation) proved to be successful in protecting the proposed RRS from potential scour downstream. The modified approach wall design proved to be successful in creating safe approach flow conditions as well as acceptable flow separation patterns. It is recommended that Alternative 3 be the design used going forward.
  • The Demonstration and Validation of a Linked Watershed-Riverine Modeling System for DoD Installations – Patuxent Watershed, Maryland

    Abstract: This work evaluated a linked watershed and riverine modeling system for the Patuxent River Watershed, Maryland against observed field data and model output from a watershed model. The performance objectives were computed for streamflow, sediment, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium, and nitrate using daily and monthly average model predictions and measured data. Hydrological Simulation Program – Fortran (HSPF) was used to compute runoff, sediment, and nutrient loadings, whereas the Hydrologic Engineer Center – River Analysis Sys-tem (HEC-RAS) was used to evaluate in-stream flow, channel sedimentation, and the fate/transport of nutrients. Model results were successful for calibration, validation, and management scenario analysis. Contaminants were not simulated for this watershed due to a lack of observed data to compare against. The study identified two implementation issues. First, while the Patuxent River did not experience dry bed conditions, where a stream may be intermittent, one can incorporate a very narrow slot at the low point in the cross-section to numerically keep the channel wet during very low flows. Second, to set up the linked model, there needs to be more observed water quality data to better constrain the HSPF output being used as boundary conditions to the HEC-RAS model.
  • Comparison of Antifungal Efficiencies of Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial-Infused Coatings: Evaluation of Five Antimicrobial Coatings Using Standard Test Methods

    Abstract: New buildings are being constructed and existing buildings retrofitted to be more energy efficient to meet increasingly stringent Department of Defense (DoD) energy standards. Although these standards save energy and lower operational costs, they also limit fresh air within a structure and can cause a buildup of harmful substances in indoor environments. Of particular concern are molds, which can put building occupants at risk and damage infrastructure. One possible solution to this increasing Army problem is to coat building materials with photocatalytic paints, which have the ability to both destroy microorganisms as well as the toxic byproducts they produce. This work compared two next-generation photocatalytic coatings against three more traditional antimicrobial-infused coatings for their ability to resist fungal contamination using three accelerated test conditions. Under each test condition the photocatalytic coatings were found to perform poorly compared to the antimicrobial-infused coatings. Moreover, the control coating, which contained no active antimicrobial (standard latex paint), performed as well as or better than all the antimicrobial coatings tested. This suggested that there may be little benefit to using antimicrobial coatings to inhibit fungal colonization over a standard latex paint; however, further testing is required to confirm this perception.

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