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The ERDC Library supports the mission-related research needs of ERDC scientists and engineers at three physical locations with a centralized library catalog and web site. It also hosts an online digital repository of ERDC-authored reports.

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  • A Measurement System for the Study of Nonlinear Propagation Through Arrays of Scatterers

    Abstract: Various experimental challenges exist in measuring the spatial and temporal field of a nonlinear acoustic pulse propagating through an array of scatterers. Probe interference and undesirable high-frequency response plague typical approaches with acoustic microphones, which are also limited to resolving the pressure field at a single position. Measurements made with optical methods do not have such drawbacks, and schlieren measurements are particularly well suited to measuring both the spatial and temporal evolution of nonlinear pulse propagation in an array of scatterers. Herein, a measurement system is described based on a z-type schlieren setup, which is suitable for measuring axisymmetric phenomena and visualizing weak shock propagation. In order to reduce directivity and initiate nearly spherically-symmetric propagation, laser induced breakdown serves as the source for the nonlinear pulse. A key component of the schlieren system is a standard schliere, which allows quantitative schlieren measurements to be performed. Sizing of the standard schliere is aided by generating estimates of the expected light refraction from the nonlinear pulse, by way of the forward Abel transform. Finally, considerations for experimental sequencing, image capture, and a reconfigurable rod array designed to minimize spurious wave interactions are specified.
  • Army Installations of the Future Industry Day 2019: Summary Report

    Abstract: The Army Installations of the Future Industry Day was held on 23 May 2019 at the Renaissance Capital View hotel in Arlington, VA to identify the availability and maturity of specific commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) “smart installation” capabilities, technologies, and products; and to seek interest from industry in exploring potential approaches, requirements, standards, and/or specifications for pilot demonstrations at Army installations focused on 10 use-case technology areas. The Industry Day event included approximately 336 participants comprised of Academia (5), Industry (226), and Government (105). This report presents “road maps” that outline the Army’s desired outcomes for the target technology areas and potential pilot technology demonstrations.
  • Numerical Analysis of Weak Acoustic Shocks in Aperiodic Array of Rigid Scatterers

    Abstract: Nonlinear propagation of shock waves through periodic structures have the potential to exhibit interesting phenomena. Frequency content of the shock that lies within a bandgap of the periodic structure is strongly attenuated, but nonlinear frequency-frequency interactions pumps energy back into those bands. To investigate the relative importance of these propagation phenomena, numerical experiments using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation are carried out. Two-dimensional propagation through a periodic array of rectangular waveguides is performed by iteratively using the output of one waveguide as the input for the next waveguide. Comparison of the evolution of the initial shock wave for both the linear and nonlinear cases is presented.
  • Geometric-Acoustics Analysis of Singly Scattered, Nonlinearly Evolving Waves by Circular Cylinders

    Abstract:  Geometric acoustics, or acoustic ray theory, is used to analyze the scattering of high-amplitude acoustic waves incident upon rigid circular cylinders. Theoretical predictions of the nonlinear evolution of the scattered wave field are provided, as well as measures of the importance of accounting for nonlinearity. An analysis of scattering by many cylinders is also provided, though the effects of multiple scattering are not considered. Provided the characteristic nonlinear distortion length is much larger than a cylinder radius, the nonlinear evolution of the incident wave is shown to be of much greater importance to the overall evolution than the nonlinear evolution of the individual scattered waves.
  • Estimating the Density of Secretive, At-risk Snake Species on DoD Installations Using an Innovative Approach: IDEASS

    Abstract: The Department of Defense (DoD) expends considerable resources managing and conserving threatened, endangered, or at-risk snake species. Management for these species is often hampered by a lack of basic knowledge regarding their population size and trajectory. The low detectability of most snakes makes it difficult to determine their presence, or to employ traditional methods to estimate abundance. This work demonstrated a novel, simulation-based method, Innovative Density Estimation Approach for Secretive Snakes (IDEASS), for estimating snake density based on systematic road surveys, behavioral observations of snake movement, and spatial movement (radio telemetry) data. This method was used to generate meaningful density estimates for two rare and cryptic snakes of conservation concern, the Southern Hognose and Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake, at Fort Stewart, Georgia. IDEASS was also applied to an existing dataset to retroactively estimate density of a more common species of management concern, the Western Ratsnake, at Fort Hood, Texas. In all three cases, traditional density estimation via visual surveys and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) failed completely due to lack of captures and re-captures, despite extensive field effort. We conclude that IDEASS represents a powerful tool, and in some cases the only viable method, for estimating density of secretive snakes.
  • Red River Structure Physical Model Study

    Abstract: A proposed Red River Structure (RRS), intended to function as one of three gated structures comprising the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Area Flood Risk Management Project, was tested in a general physical model. A 1:40 Froude-scale was applied to model the structure, engineered channels, existing bathymetry/topography in the Red River and overbank areas, and the proposed Southern Embankment. The physical model was used to ensure that the RRS could pass at least 104,300 cfs during the Probable Maximum Flood while maintaining a maximum pool water surface elevation of 923.5 ft. The physical model was also utilized to optimize the approach structure, stilling basin, retaining walls, and erosion protection designs. The physical modeling effort resulted in an optimized stilling basin wall, retaining wall, and end sill geometry/configuration where erosive conditions were not observed outside and adjacent to the stilling basin. Properly designed riprap (St. Paul District’s R470 gradation) proved to be successful in protecting the proposed RRS from potential scour downstream. The modified approach wall design proved to be successful in creating safe approach flow conditions as well as acceptable flow separation patterns. It is recommended that Alternative 3 be the design used going forward.
  • The Demonstration and Validation of a Linked Watershed-Riverine Modeling System for DoD Installations – Patuxent Watershed, Maryland

    Abstract: This work evaluated a linked watershed and riverine modeling system for the Patuxent River Watershed, Maryland against observed field data and model output from a watershed model. The performance objectives were computed for streamflow, sediment, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonium, and nitrate using daily and monthly average model predictions and measured data. Hydrological Simulation Program – Fortran (HSPF) was used to compute runoff, sediment, and nutrient loadings, whereas the Hydrologic Engineer Center – River Analysis Sys-tem (HEC-RAS) was used to evaluate in-stream flow, channel sedimentation, and the fate/transport of nutrients. Model results were successful for calibration, validation, and management scenario analysis. Contaminants were not simulated for this watershed due to a lack of observed data to compare against. The study identified two implementation issues. First, while the Patuxent River did not experience dry bed conditions, where a stream may be intermittent, one can incorporate a very narrow slot at the low point in the cross-section to numerically keep the channel wet during very low flows. Second, to set up the linked model, there needs to be more observed water quality data to better constrain the HSPF output being used as boundary conditions to the HEC-RAS model.
  • Comparison of Antifungal Efficiencies of Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial-Infused Coatings: Evaluation of Five Antimicrobial Coatings Using Standard Test Methods

    Abstract: New buildings are being constructed and existing buildings retrofitted to be more energy efficient to meet increasingly stringent Department of Defense (DoD) energy standards. Although these standards save energy and lower operational costs, they also limit fresh air within a structure and can cause a buildup of harmful substances in indoor environments. Of particular concern are molds, which can put building occupants at risk and damage infrastructure. One possible solution to this increasing Army problem is to coat building materials with photocatalytic paints, which have the ability to both destroy microorganisms as well as the toxic byproducts they produce. This work compared two next-generation photocatalytic coatings against three more traditional antimicrobial-infused coatings for their ability to resist fungal contamination using three accelerated test conditions. Under each test condition the photocatalytic coatings were found to perform poorly compared to the antimicrobial-infused coatings. Moreover, the control coating, which contained no active antimicrobial (standard latex paint), performed as well as or better than all the antimicrobial coatings tested. This suggested that there may be little benefit to using antimicrobial coatings to inhibit fungal colonization over a standard latex paint; however, further testing is required to confirm this perception.
  • Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System Coastal Data Collection and Horizontal Accuracy: A Case Study at Garden City Beach, South Carolina

    Abstract: The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) aims to evaluate unmanned aircraft system (UAS) technology to support flood risk management applications, examining data collection and processing methods and exploring potential for coastal capabilities. Foundational evaluation of the technology is critical for understanding data application and determining best practices for data collection and processing. This study demonstrated UAS Multispectral (MS) and Red Green Blue (RGB) image efficacy for coastal monitoring using Garden City Beach, South Carolina, as a case study. Relative impacts to horizontal accuracy were evaluated under varying field scenarios (flying altitude, viewing angle, and use of onboard Real-Time Kinematic–Global Positioning System), level of commercial off-the-shelf software processing precision (default optimal versus high or low levels) and processing time, and number of ground control points applied during postprocessing (default number versus additional points). Many data sets met the minimum horizontal accuracy requirements designated by USACE Engineering Manual 2015. Data collection and processing methods highlight procedures resulting in high resolution UAS MS and RGB imagery that meets a variety of USACE project monitoring needs for site plans, beach renourishment and hurricane protection projects, project conditions, planning and feasibility studies, floodplain mapping, water quality analysis, flood control studies, emergency management, and ecosystem restoration.
  • Eutrophication Management via Iron-Phosphorus Binding

    Abstract: The presence of phosphorus (P) in excessive quantities can lead to undesired conditions, such as cyanobacterial/algal bloom. The over-enriched hypertrophic conditions or the excess amounts of nutrients (nitrogen and P, P being the primary nutrient of concern) are the major cause of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, which can be toxic and can also lead to oxygen depletion and anoxic respiration (hypoxia) in the hypolimnion. The presence of iron compounds has been shown to bind phosphorus and diminish harmful algal blooms. Therefore, an iron-plates-packed reactor has been designed to reduce P in surface water. This cost-effective and easy-to-install system has shown promising results in phosphorus reduction.

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